ENGB35H3 Lecture Notes - Bruno Bettelheim, Sarah Trimmer, Maria Edgeworth

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18 Apr 2012
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Fairies
mythical small being
Fairy Tales
there are polarities in fairy stories of good and evil
evil vs good
o power axis is relavent in the childs life because they are powerless and unable
o characters are usually flat; they don’t develop over time
o the narrator remains outside this story.
“Naked Narratives”
rarely stop to critic or analyze
irreducibly implicit
part of their power
the reason that we have so many analoges of stories
Pirrout
sometimes the moral has nothing to do with the story
ex little red riding hood
the moral is implicit
o its not delivered or spelled out for us
o this means there is lots of room to read into the stories
There is no slow gradual involvement in intricacies of subjectivities
black and white
nothing like 18, 19, 20th century novel
because of this nakedness they can occur anytime and anywhere
Sub-category of folktales
folk tales which contain magic
originated from oral cultures and are part of the rituals of oral communities
there is no fixed “original fairy tale story” because of their origins
Oldest known recorded version of Cinderella
850-860AD first written
not new however
doesn’t have a fairy god mother like pirrout or grimm
shares the same motifs however
6 steps in cinderella
persecuted by stepmother
abuse involves a loss of status
o dressed in rags, to the kitchen
o accompanying a change in name to go with status
o in every version the girl is good; heroine
magical aid
o animal; fish, cow
o somebody or something supernatural
dressed up and meets pirince
o he always falls in love with her
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then must prove identity
o varies considerably between the cultures
o shoe or slipper in some; others perform a task; Russian make fine clothing
Marries the prince
A key into which all fairy stories will fit
Aarne and Thompson
o 2499 types of fairy stories
o 510A is cinderalla
o 510B is her father with some incesterous overtones
ex king lear
o 510c is the boy being persecuted
in 19th century germany
there were as many male cinderallas as female
did not survive as female did however
Morphology of folktale
1928
didnt like aarne's classification system
came with 31 fxns of a fairy story
every fairy story will show these fxns regardless of the detail
Why the similarities?
a) monogenesis
suggest that all stories began in one place and spread gradually across cultures and to other
areas
b) polygenesis
mankind is the one and the same everywhere
Carl Jung
tapping into essential aspects of the humans psyche into the collective conscious that we all
share
Basically they contain primary symbols that are invested with meanings for our mental well
being
Diffusionist model
the tales would have developed in different places but some would be carried to other places
small scale
o marriage in small space
o take the story to another tribe
grand scale
o military conquest
o prisoners
Charles Perrault-1697 histoires ou contes du temps passé avec des moralites” [the man is part of
the circle although distant]
19th century they became proper reading for children
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