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Lecture 4

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

Planet EarthLecture 4Oceans start off small and then matureclassic examplethe Atlantic OceanAtlantic Ocean is chosen because we can go to Iceland the midocean ridge is exposed above sea level and we can walk over it and study itIn Iceland you can walk over a midocean ridgeFig 22Breaking up of continents and then coming back together againsupercontinentAtlantic Ocean is a mature oceanMature Oceans The Atlantic OceanMidOcean Ridges Modern and Ancient OphiolitesOphiolites fossil midocean ridgesancient midocean ridgesMuch of the island of Newfoundland is made up of ancient ocean crust which is there because Africa collided with Eastern North AmericaOcean floor is raised above land in Newfoundland and you can walk over itAtlantic Ocean What Canadian city sits on the western margin VancouverSits right on top of the cascadia subduction zoneWhere pacific plate is driven down below North AmericaActive plate marginmore likely earthquakes will occurEastern margin is not eastern coast of North AmericaPassive margin of North American plate is alongmiddle of the Atlantic Oceanthis is where plate is being created pushing rest of the plate to the westexplains why were on the move and why Vancouver is being driven over the Pacific plateEurasian plateone of the largest plates on the planetbeing pushed eastwardalso called passivebut not accurate because we still get earthquakes thereWhere is the active plate margin of the Eurasian plate and what do we find along its marginWhere would you go in Europe to stand on the active plate margin The Alpsnearabove Arabian plateMajor active plate boundary marked by high mountainsIceland is passiveMediterannean is a remnant of the much larger ocean that used to lay between AfricaEuropeMap shows that ocean basins are not flatWater depth is fairly shallow along the middle of the oceanthe water depth increases away from midocean ridge and get deep adjacent to the continentsAbyssal PlainsDeep 45 kmflat areaShallowest parts are right along the middle hot magma coming out and as the crust is pushed away it cools sinks and depth increases into the abyssall plainsContinental ShelfFlat area just off the shoreMany kilometers of sediments that have been washed off the continentContains fisherieslot of oxygen nutrients etcUsed to have Cod fish in some shelves in Canada
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