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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 In Class Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

Rheology: the ability to flow, how easy it is for something to flow Pyroclastic (broken by fire): these are rocks that are shattered by the power of the eruption and blown into the sky, either as volcanic bombs or as ash The deepest earthquakes that occur are about 700km down, this shows that the descending slabs of oceanic crust are preserved until they reach that depth Magmatic arc: is a line of volcanoes directly above a subduction zone, the oceanic crust is made of basalt, but when we drag down a lot of sea water and sediments from the ocean, then when it is melted, a silicic magma is created thus reducing the viscosity of the magma Deep water trenches: is where the ocean floor is just starting to go down into the subduction zone New Zealand is the tip of a much larger landmass called Zealandia The small triangles on the continental boundary lines on the maps indicate the direction of subduction Obduction: when continental crusts are pushing against each other like the Himalayans When two oceanic crusts collide, the older one subducts underneath as the new crust is warmer, thus lighter The Southern Alps are the place in New Zealand where there is a lot of uplift due to the plates colliding, Mt. Cook is the highest point in New Zealand Lateral Blast: is where a volcano erupts to the side due to a sector collapse of the rim
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