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Lecture 3

GGRA02 Lecture 3. The Global History of Toronto.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michael Ekers

GGRA02 Geographies of Global Processes Lecture 03 WEEK 03 Sept 16 2013 Lecture 3: Toronto’s Indigenous Landscape: The Global History of Toronto “For Aboriginal people living in the Toronto area there is a long history of Native occupation which Toronto’s modern towers of concrete and steel may obscure but cannot eradicate.” Bobiwash Review  Place is constructed out of a number of processes and relations that constitute the meaning and physicality of a given locale  Globalization refers to the increasing interconnectedness of our world. o However, growing disparities exist in our globalized world o Political economic and culture forces drive globalization 1. Space: absolute space  Mathematical space, described through points, boundaries and lines. o i.e. maps  space pre-exists human activity o processes happen in space  despite the assumption of objectivity, absolute space can be deeply political Notes: two different ways to define space: 1. Absolute Space • Landmark/landscape • Measurement Representation of absolute space • Maps, divided base groups/culture, political lines draw, include/excluded different people 2. Space: relational space  Space is not the container of social activity, but rather is produced out of that activity o i.e. is socially constructed  Relational space involves an appreciation of the multiple processes that contribute to the geographical configuration and meaning of activity.  The spatiality of our lives is subject to enormous change Notes: Relational Space • Make space out of activity • Certain identity that are mark ( Italy, Chinatown), violent, culture, or other identities, the meaning attach to the space • Economical geography • Housing pattern • Infrastructure • Internet • Transportation (highway, subway, bus) GGRA02 Geographies of Global Processes Lecture 03 WEEK 03 Sept 16 2013 • How we move and how we live • Subjective construction of space • Space are subject to change, like the GTA Italy town, but the Italian doesn’t live there anymore, is the history behind it Relational space  Spatial Practice o Refers to the location in which social and economic activity occurs, and in turn, how that activity produces space. o Consider bitumen from Northern Alberta.  Representations of Space o The invisible ways in which power is inscribed into space. o Quebec language laws, street signs, zoning etc. (force people to be the same, band religion symbol in public space)  Symbolic Space o Cultural and symbolic meanings associated with distinct spaces. o City Hall, Parliament Buildings, CN Tower.  Notes:  Spatial practice o Building highway – economical decision, transform space into what it is  Representations of space o How we represent things, space that carry meaning, political power  Symbolic space o Symbolism of space, capitalism, global advance city, representation of power, tourist o Place is how we define it, how our specialty 3. The Global History of Toronto: Aboriginal Settlement in the Toronto area  Aboriginal settlements for about 11’000 years  Temporary, seasonal settlements and posts for hunting, gathering, fishing, defense, and trade.  Agricultural villages since about 1000 years ago (reaching up to 2000 inhabitants)  Haudnesaunee/5 Nations, up to the foot of the Humber River  Huron/Wendat, Georgian Bay  Mississauga, Humber River, TO Island, Credit River 4. Aboriginal Social Formations  Defined by ‘kinship mode of production’: extended families are key units of (re- )production  Egalitarian social structure (division of labour along gender and age and specialization does not lead to the formation of different classes and a separate state authority; ritual redistribution of surplus)  Communal ownership: private property and the individual are alien ideas GGRA02 Geographies of Global Processes Lecture 03 WEEK 03 Sept 16 2013  Family lineages and decision-making often defined and shaped by women, mothers (they are matrilineal or matriarchal societies)  Notes:  Absent of Private property  Antimodernist or underdeveloped 5. Trade and the Affluent Society  Affluent Society  Abundant resources, leisure time, cultural development  Toronto a site of trade and commerce that pre-dates European contact  “Archaeological digs in Toronto have unearthed artefacts which originate on from the Gulf of Mexico, to the arctic, to the pacific coast.”  Transfer of knowledge, culture, goods  How would we define the place of Toronto in light of this Aboriginal history?  Toronto is been long for Site of trade/exchange, and culture exchange  Answer: Flows of culture, knowledge, goods Discussion Questions 1. How do you define colonialism and imperialism? 2. How do they differ? 3. What are the contemporary forms of imperialism and colonialism?  Colonialism 殖民主义: settlement, any people or territory separated from but subject to a ruling power  Imperialism 帝国主义: power/control of resources, the policy and practice of a power in extending control over weaker peoples or areas.  Spread of Americanization: culture form of colonization 6. Starting points: Definitions  Imperialism: the extension of the power of a nation through direct or indirect control of the economic, political, c
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