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GGRA03:Cites and nature - lec 3-11

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Andre Sorensen

The Industrial City Lecture 3 Transformative aspects of the industrial revolution role of municipal government in building construction Industrial revolution flubber4 main changes technology and productive capacity New energy sources increasing wealth Social change rural to urban migration much larger city pop how people relate to society their land lord etc Increasing role of capitalism in structuring economic and social affairs Expansion of global markets and competitionshipping all over world process of globalization gets a kick start Urban problems Poverty insecurity no health care employment insurance social assistance social housingThere will always be poverty because people will always be better off than othersHousing overcrowding in inner city sections of the cityCheaper areas were available on the outskirts of the city however there were no affective transportation available so people couldnt afford to pay two transit fairs as well as time castrates Water supply older technologies such as wells were suddenly inadequatewho would pay for more systemssisterns Around wells waste leaked into wells many people got sick because they did not kno about the germ theory 1970 typhusa man mapped the cases and found that all the people were drinking from the same well Sewers human waste deposal became a major issueshared privy outhousewhen waste gathered in the side holes of the road men would come during the night with trucks scoop the waste out and dump it in the outskirts of the city used it as fertilization poor people who were living in unmaintained houses couldnt afford to pay someone to get rid of the waste on the first floor Congestion in central areas became severeHuge density of people in the centre bringing in waterfood became extremely difficult Social Changes maps boothiscacuk Rural to urban migration eclipse of older systems of social order support Concentration of poverty in inner city slums there had always been poor people but never packed together in such huge numbers Growing fears of insurrection disease disorder Fear of decline of morals and beliefs that poor were just lazy improvident Crisis and Reforms As hall convincingly shows the decisive factor in the development of urban reform ideas was the grim thtruth of big city life in the 19 centuryThe city of dreadful night was a place of filth desperate overcrowding disease poverty crime miseryTowards the planned cityRemove the incentive for revolution prevent overturningwith little improvements Political problems To get action on any issue it is necessary to convince political leaders and the publicthat issue was important that a solution is possible something about costthThat was very difficult in 19 centurylocal governments had little power or input The electorate was small leaders were usually big property owners municipal finance was mostly property tax Government didnt like to regulate private land development or raise taxes Changing understanding of City Environment thKey change after 19 century emergence of idea that city environments should be consciously planned and built Realized that free markets didnt build an adequate urban environment on their own
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