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GGRC44H3 (12)
Lecture 7

Lecture 7

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Department
Geography
Course
GGRC44H3
Professor
Mark Juhasz
Semester
Fall

Description
← Case Study: The European Union ← • Scale Considerations on a Geographically Diverse Continent o mountains, population, etc. ← • Considerations in a cultural Strong (Nationalistically) defined continent o ethnic food traditions ← ← 20 century legacies ← intensification of agriculture matched with artisan traditions • increase in production but still consider traditional foods ← ← WWII • Advances in technology (agrichemicals) o Nuclear power, chemicals used for war transferred to agricultural sector after • Advances in administration ← ← Post-WWII • Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) at the European wide level • Europe had been devastated by a war, food insecurity was high • Emphasis on protecting famers for food supply with extensive subsidies o Keynesian economics, protectionism • Efficiencies in production, and cultural influence of Europe, led to export markets o Food production surplus o Opening free trade • On a global level, farmers complain about EU subsidy system ← ← More recent issues: • CAP shifting from commodity subsidies to multi-functionality; supporting farmers who do ecosystem services, restoration on land o Supporting farmer for food, land, environmental protection o Multi-functionality- rural heritage, food production, ecosystem support (water, air etc.) • Production of Designation of Origin (PDO) o Protecting regional uniqueness of foods in a homogenizing world of limitations  Cheese, wine, cured meats, food traditions, spirits o Each cultural specific food is from a specific region/country and should be protected, not called the same thing when outside of that country  Cannot produce as cheaply as other parts of the world that is outside of its original location of production  Ex. Champagne should be called something else outside of France • Slow food movement o Quality over quantity o Uniqueness and artisanship rather than mass production • Rural Labor Costs (national wages vs. migrant workers) o Reactionary politics? o Mexican/African workers=cheaper labor ← ← Case Study: North America • Scale of production o Large scale, high intensity • European dominance on North America, especially Anglo- American o European influence • Agricultural Science: The designs of the Green Revolution o Norman Borlaug  Father of the green revolution  Travelled the world to talk about solving agricultural issues  Research on high intensive production  Set up research centers around to world to focus on specific key commodity (ex. Singapore-rice) • Primary Commodities: corn, wheat, beef, dairy, soy (more recently) • Mechanization, technologies of scale o Smaller % involved in farmer o Technology allowed higher production with less farmers • Ecological concerns grow in the 60’s and 70’s from chemicals o DDT-pesticide used in agricultural sector o Rachel Carson’s “Silent Spring” o Agricultural movement • 1960s counter-culture o hippies, organic movement ← ← More recent issues • GMOs (genetically modified organisms) • CAFOs (concentrated animal feeding operations) o Model of agricultures • Alternatives: Organic, Local-CSAs (community supported agriculture) • USDA (United States Department of Agriculture)-farm bill>towards EG&S (Ecological goods and services) • Ethanol vs. Feedstock o Ethanol-major source of concern
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