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Lecture 2

Course Code
Neville Panthaki

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Quest for raw materials led to overseas expansion leading to imperialism
Imperialism started in 1492 through the founding of America (started by the Spanish,
Portuguese and the Dutch, who had the best navy)
They were looking for India (which the eventually discovered in 1498)
This set the pattern of colonization
1750,1815, the British began to grow until the Spanish, Portugese were no longer threats
They destroyed Spanish’s fleats and the British Navy began to increase its power
1830-1880, british industrialization took off and the reach for markets were not mutually
This led to liberalism and free trade (exploitation for the colony)
Competition was exclusive to them
This led to the rise of European nationalism
Scientific racism began to emerge (somehow, southern countries were less developed due to
Inventions: steam engine (efficient travelling), quinine prophylaxis (cure for malaria needed
for sailors and officers who were dealing with tropical countries) and machine gun, helped
the expansion even more
1880-1900 was the scramble for Africa
During this period, the entire continent was taken
UK had 2/3 of world’s coal (needed for production of steel), ½ of pig iron and ½ of finished
These resources added to their success
How was imperialism achieved?
By 1900, Britain controlled ¼ of world’s land which was 1/3 of world’s population
The first possible way was through direct control (territorial occupation) the briish did not
do this
British form: indirect control (commercial control of economy)
Imperialism was through co-operation, not coercion
Co-operation through a local elite, administration and bureaucracy (change it a little bit),
technology and modernity (extend it to the colony to make them integrated with a new form
of lifestyle), use divide and rule (emphasis differences) and through a cultural dominance
British imperialism extended English into new colonies (language of power) which also
changed the culture
English becomes the language of commerce, elite and schooling
Another step was western governance through law, administration, methods and limits (all
dictated by the British)
Finally, through Christianity through their belief system, values and concepts
Unlike the French, the British did not put much importance in religion because they were
more interested in commerce
Imperialism could not have happened without the cooption of the colonies
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