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Lecture notes week 11

Course Code
Neville Panthaki

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x Anglo-German Gentleman Agreement
x Anti-Comintern Pact (Germany, Italy, …)
x Hitler is extremely shrewd and cunning and getting what he wants through concession and diplomacy
x 1935 Æ open rearmament, against Versailles
x 1936 Æ Spanish Civil War, reoccupation of Rhineland, against Versailles
x Hitler established a diplomatic coup and took over the entire country of Austria, without firing a shot
x Hitler launched a coup and put a fascist party into place
x said that he wanted Anschluss Æ against the Versailles treaty
x the British signed off on this
x the entire country of Austria was emerged into the emerging Third Reich of Germany
x in September, Hitler detached the Sudetenland mountainous area of Czechoslovakia
x in this area, there was a minority group of Germans, called the Sudeten Germans Æ northwest area of Czechoslovakia
x even though the Sudeten Germans were never part of Germany, Hitler made it an issue
x in Munich, the French, Germans, British, and Italians came together to decide the faith of Sudetenland
x they all came to the conclusion that the Sudeten Germans should be included in Germany
x at this time, Hitler started dividing the area into Czech Republic and Slovakia already
x at this same time, Chamberlain started saying that he had got Hitler’s peace signature
x the French did not believe Chamberlain, so the French go out for their own signature and pact, which they get
x this was called the French-German Non-Aggression Pact
x Poland also signed a non-aggression pact
x through these pacts, a lot of the countries start to feel safe from Hitler and the Nazis
x the Czech part of the Czechoslovakia was annexed
x in the first few months, Hitler simply erased all the credibility with the British government and made Chamberlain look
like an idiot by walking in and invading Czech territory
x after that Mussolini invaded Albania
x in present-day Lithuania, the Germans seized a port called Memel saying that it had a German minority, but in fact,
they wanted to invade it so that they could get a route to the Soviet Union
x the Memel was a League of Nations mandate Æ right for the League to take
x Pact of Steel Æ Germany, Italy Æ this was after their declaration of the axis lines, after which they were called Axis
x Nazi-Soviet Pact Æ this was the last thing that Hitler did to pull apart the Allies
x Hitler and Stalin concluded the non-aggression pact because everything that Hitler had done in Europe, apart from the
reoccupation of Rhineland, was done in the east
x it was at this point that the British openly guaranteed that they would protect Poland
x Hitler meeting with his military commanders that the British were lying, since Poland was one of the allies of Britain
since the Versailles treaty Æ not because they were scared of the Nazis
x Hitler also thought that if Britain had allowed all the things that the Nazis had done before the start of the world war,
such as the annexation of Austria and the Czech territory, then why would Britain help Poland
x when Germany invaded Poland and Britain declared war, Hitler was dumbfounded Æ it didn’t make any sense
x in Hitler’s point of view, there was no basis or guarantee to going for war for Poland
x in Britain’s point of view, there is a last straw and the invasion of Poland was that last store
Rapallo Era (1922 – 1933)
x Germany completely reorganized everything after Bismarck and the first world war
x between 1922 1933, the foreign minister of Soviet Russia, Chicherin, and the foreign minister of Germany, Rathenall,
quietly met and set the basis for a very fruitful 10 years of good relationships
x they both had made commonalities from the Treaty of Versailles
x Germany and Russia recognize each other diplomatically Æ which can extend into trade and other areas
x the Germans start to re-militarize on Soviet territory Æ the Soviets get sharing of knowledge and other military tips
x the Germans learn the Blitzkrieg from the Soviets not the other way around
x there are many industrial and military links
x this ends when Hitler comes to power Æ he is anti-balance of power mandate
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x Hitler is anti-Soviet and breaks off all connections with the Soviet
Collective Security (1934 1939)
x once the Russians are in the League of Nations, they begin a policy of collective security
x Maxim Litvinov uses the French to get the collective security policy into place
x Soviet policies begin to change and instead of toppling governments, there is promotion of popular front governments
x it is now coalition vs. fascism
x in the end there is massive distrust of Soviet intent and there is toleration of Hitler Æ the French
x in 1939, after the French finally pull their support and sign a non-aggression pact with Hitler, the Soviets and Stalin
indicate that they are ready to sign a non-aggression pact with Hitler
x to show this, Stalin fires Maxim Litvinov, a Jew, which shows Hitler that Stalin is really serious
x the only pact signed with Stalin, is the Soviet-German Non-Aggression Pact
x Stalin has not only signed to be neutral, but is to get half of Poland
x Blitzkrieg is ingenious because the Germans have limited arms to use in a certain time period, so it is needed
The German Blitzkrieg
x Poland
o on September 1, 1939 the Germans attacks Poland
o the USSR also invades and link to the Germans by September 19
o this is all there is to the Polish campaign
o on September 27, Warsaw surrenders to the Germans and the Soviets
x “Phoney War (Sept. 3, 1939 April 5, 1940)
o this part of the war is called the “phoney war” because there is no action on the part of the British and the French
o this confused Hitler a lot because he thought that the British and French would attack
x Denmark surrenders (April 10, 1940)
o Denmark surrendered in 3 days because of the air ops that landed and attacked on Copenhagen
x Norway surrenders (April 9 – June 8, 1940)
o Norway also surrendered in much the same way Denmark did
o this was because the air superiority of the Germans was too much
o this is the first time that the British and French attempt a counter-attack but they fail
o as of June 1940 Norway is down as well
x Churchill forms government (UK) (May 10, 1940)
o Chamberlain resigns because there might be impeachment of the government
o therefore, Churchill enters the government and becomes the prime minister
o it takes another government and another man to come to power for Hitler to understand that Britain will not fall
x Netherlands and Belgium (May 10 – May 28, 1940)
o right after the Britain government changes, the Germans attack the Netherlands and Belgium
o they surrender after 18 days of fighting
o it is to defeat France that the Germans go through the Netherlands and Belgium
x France
o the Germans attack France on May 13, 1940
o the Allied armies are split by the 20th of May
o the British army are still hugging the coast where they came off
o the French army are pulling back to Vichy and Paris
o the French and British think that they will have some time to meet and discuss
o they think that the armies will hold out
o the Germans enact another thing from WWI where they take all the channel ports
o the Germans take all the ports, except for Dunkirk, which is open as the last escape route for the British
o they stop on May 23 to give time to the British
o the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) evacuate through Dunkirk between May 26 and June 3
o the BEF although destroyed, recovers 50% to 75% of their force and evacuate between May 26 and June 3
o after that time, the Germans close the port and that is why some part of BEF is left behind
o Paris surrenders on June 14
x Blitzkrieg is successful because the Germans do not actually fight, they are overcoming people by speed
x they are not really fighting because they are not giving the enemy a chance to attack back
x Britain
o this is the time that the relationship between the French and the British go sour
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