HISB93H3 Professor Dowler Fall 2009 Lecture Note

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24 Jul 2010
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Period of Mongol Rule
x The Khans headed the Mongol Empire (gigantic and powerful)
x The Mongols were nomadic people who lived north of China in the steppe
x Traditional nomads society was complex and sophisticated. They move their flocks
within certain geographical limits on a regular basis.
o In order to move large masses, it requires huge organizational skills and mobility
o These movements are similar to certain military manoeuvres
o The nomads were military organizations
o Asiatic nomads were horsemen
o Their military system was a cavalry army
o Nomads do not live in cities
o Nomads were interested in controlling the routes between cities because of
interest in commerce (trade)
o The Russian steppe can be viewed as an ocean and the cities on the edge were the
ports. Whoever controlled the steppe, controlled the cities
o 1206, Mongol clan lord, Genghis Khan, united all of the Mongol clans into a sort
of federation
o The state created by Genghis was a federation of the clan
o Each clan was assigned its grazing area
o At the head, was a clan lord who had officers under his command
o Below the officers were commoners (took orders and carried out the orders)
o Below them were slaves (POW)
o All of the clan lords were subject to Genghis Khan.
o The Mongols were so effective as a military and political force because of the
army
o Each clan was divided into A Thousand (large enough to produce and maintain
100 cavalry men)
o (DFKZDVGLYLGHGLQWR¶VDQGWKHQLQWRWHQV
o Each group had its own commander and he was responsible of recruiting and
army
o The penalty for leaving the group was death for the deserter and the commander
o Genghis had an elite guard of 10000
o With this military machine, he captured north china and Beijing (south china
remained under Chinese control)
o The seizure of North China was important for the Mongol development (access to
technology and exposed them to learning and the arts, became a centre for
culture)
o Genghis created a beauracracy which enabled the Mongols to impose power and
authority
o *HQJKLV¶VJRDOZDVWRFUHDWHD universal trading empire under Mongol control
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Document Summary

N the khans headed the mongol empire (gigantic and powerful) N the mongols were nomadic people who lived north of china in the steppe. N traditional nomads society was complex and sophisticated. If they resisted, they would be destroyed: after the conquest of china, the mongols began to expand to the west. :9902411 from the west and solidified russia absolutism: #:88,8574-028070-,20/43 the mongols (bias) The real impact of mongols on russia: many cities were destroyed due to resistance at first, mongols rounded up the best artisans and put them to work on mongol projects elsewhere. Russia was deprived of their skilled craftsmen: since the mongols wanted a prosperous country to tax, russia began to benefit economically, mongol promoted internal and external trade, they pushed russia into closer contact into europe (ex. Russian military organization was an exact copy of mongol army: cavalry, 5 divisions.

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