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Lecture

HISB93H3 Professor Dowler Fall 2009 Lecture Note


Department
History
Course Code
HISB93H3
Professor
Wayne Dowler

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Oct 6
Period of Mongol Rule
x The Khans headed the Mongol Empire (gigantic and powerful)
x The Mongols were nomadic people who lived north of China in the steppe
x Traditional nomads society was complex and sophisticated. They move their flocks
within certain geographical limits on a regular basis.
o In order to move large masses, it requires huge organizational skills and mobility
o These movements are similar to certain military manoeuvres
o The nomads were military organizations
o Asiatic nomads were horsemen
o Their military system was a cavalry army
o Nomads do not live in cities
o Nomads were interested in controlling the routes between cities because of
interest in commerce (trade)
o The Russian steppe can be viewed as an ocean and the cities on the edge were the
ports. Whoever controlled the steppe, controlled the cities
o 1206, Mongol clan lord, Genghis Khan, united all of the Mongol clans into a sort
of federation
o The state created by Genghis was a federation of the clan
o Each clan was assigned its grazing area
o At the head, was a clan lord who had officers under his command
o Below the officers were commoners (took orders and carried out the orders)
o Below them were slaves (POW)
o All of the clan lords were subject to Genghis Khan.
o The Mongols were so effective as a military and political force because of the
army
o Each clan was divided into A Thousand (large enough to produce and maintain
100 cavalry men)
o (DFKZDVGLYLGHGLQWR¶VDQGWKHQLQWRWHQV
o Each group had its own commander and he was responsible of recruiting and
army
o The penalty for leaving the group was death for the deserter and the commander
o Genghis had an elite guard of 10000
o With this military machine, he captured north china and Beijing (south china
remained under Chinese control)
o The seizure of North China was important for the Mongol development (access to
technology and exposed them to learning and the arts, became a centre for
culture)
o Genghis created a beauracracy which enabled the Mongols to impose power and
authority
o *HQJKLV¶VJRDOZDVWRFUHDWHD universal trading empire under Mongol control
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