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University of Toronto Scarborough
William Nelson

Introduction to the Early Modern World: 15th century voyage-grand Armada 9 mast ships,dozens of ships carrying supplies/water,patrol boats;cavalry boats etc. sailed numerous times at beginning of 15th century,1st exploration by Armada of this time carried trade brought back commodites Zheng He's grand armadas (1405-1433) -400 feet long boats and 150 feet wide (big boats) -27,000 crew members -voyages represented china's prosperity and power -the ming dynasty revived china after mongol rule and drastic population losses from plague -Compared to other civilizations,china was advanced in terms of (1) technology (2) the economy (3) strong,organized, and effective government -despite the power and ability, the chinese did not drive early modern globalization -Europeans took a leading role in initiating many of the connections during early globalization -European empires played a significant role (connections they made with other countries and explorations) -Europeans initiated most of the connections and contact -Chinese stopped the exploration (many reasons): 1. they saw it was improper to go abroad when ones parents were alive (gone for a long time) 2. They saw little to gain from "barbarian" nations "CONTINGENCY" (A KEY CONCEPT) -most large historical transformations are contingent. not necessary , determined or pre-determined -Outcomes are usually contingent upon many factors -Things could have been different ASPECTS OF THE EARLY MODERN WORLD: -keep in mind how different early modern worldview are BEFORE NATION STATES: -most communities are lead by hierarchy rule -most world views did not reach beyond the local -they way they identified themselves is different then how we do it today -related to religious groups, families and corporations -corporate bodies were more basic it defined a group (they could be cities,towns,religious,class,different notions of castes,profession) -being a port of these corporate bodies determines social life, free time and had stages of life established by a guild. -stages of guild (masters of job, when you die your guild organizes your funeral) The assumption of inequality: Natural Inequality and Social Inequality -assumption that people are not equal in their capacities nor are they recognized in law -what cities you live in determines your rights (each city has different rights and laws) -a lot of variation and is determined by corporate bodies -when they moved between places and cities and made connections to travel far distances they have experiences of vastly different cultures. -there is a set determined order to nature - fix natured to it (natural order) -natrual part of existence (natural order) THE GREAT CHAIN OF BEING (scale of nature) -always pointed to for justification; concept existing in western civilization -man is always on the top, woman are always on the bottom -natural justifies social inequality DUTY VERSUS FREEDOM -duty: how people understood their life choice instead of thinking about rights, they think about duties differently INFORMATION :BEFORE "NEWS": information spreads slowly and unreliably -news was word of mouth, no newspapers or fast communications lines -limitations on peoples access to information on the larger world -people doing these expeditions knows very little of what they are getting into - Making history (Lecture 2) when they saw pumas they thought they were lions the unfamiliar in terms of the familiar (the unknown in terms of the known) this is both understandable and becomes problematic because of fundamental misunderstandings more of a barrier to knowledge Columbus and the Taino (the picture) pieces of evidence: Europeans are civil and Natives are savage, status difference, used religion as a way to understand that people they were encountering ,European shows superior force, ocean is a larger section of the actual frame, Bougainbille and New Cythera First french captain to circulate the world 1760's reason why they named it" New Cythera" was direct reference to greek/roman antiquity Why did Bougainville call Thiti "New Cytheria" goddess of love Aphrodite/Venus,called her Venus The Egg and the Chestnut (Jose de Acosta) comparing americas to Europe was like comparing an Egg to the Chestnut Making history (lecture 3) The two senses of "making history" Columbus and the Indies: 3. when columbus looked at the Americas he "peered through tightly woven filters of expectation and assumption from the past" 4. For Example naming it "the Indies." 5. We also have our own filters of expectation and assumptions when looking back at Columbus The secret history of Columbus • He believed the earth was round • In the caribbean sea, he saw mermaids • He "sighted three mermaids who came quite high out of the water" judging them "not as pretty as they are depicted,for somehow in the face they look like men" • Why did Columbus see mermaids? the more appropriate question about the mermaids is " Why did he write that he saw the mermaids? The Image of the East in "Mandeville's Travels" • For Europeans, the image of the East was determined largely by Marco Polo and John Mandeville • Mandeville's account was much more popular that the more accurate one of Marco Polo • Columbus read both of their written accounts of travel • He may even have taken them with him on his voyage to find westward route to the east Mandeville: • Mandeville's Travels published mid-14th century • Story of an Englishman travelling in the East • Popularized the idea of circumnavigability of the earth • Mandervilles travels helped create and expectation of marvels in the East One of the wonders and marvels in Manderville: • M's travels exploit eyewitness and local diversity • People who never travelled might mock the tales, but "if a man will only go to the next state, he will find differences of speech,customs,fruits,animals; The further he goes the greater the difference Therefore, despite the fools and the There was no John Mandeievlle> Fiction take as a true act Columbus and the expectation of marvels Columbus's reading and writing : • columbus was in part formed by books • in turn, he formed books • he publish accounts of his voyages upon returning to spain Moderate Skepticism and Eyewitness Veracity • "In these islands, i have so far found no human monstrosities as many expected, but on the contrary the whole population is very well formed" ( Columbus on his first voyage) Representing The Columbian Exchange: • Developments encompassing several continents over several centuries and the exchange of many things (plants,animals,people,diseases) • Afra Eurasia to americas: Wheat,grapevines,sugarcane,houses,cattle,swine,microbes • Americas to Afro-Eurasia: Potatoes,corn,tomatoes,beans,cacao,peanuts,tobacco and squash Ecological Imperialism: The example of clearing land • What are the advantages and disadvantages of prose and visual images? • Images : only certain types of details, can represent context better,symbolism • Prose: can capture in words; too much to put in a visual, Making history (lecture 4) "You see at once, that majesty is made out of the wig, the high-heeled shoes, and cloak..Thus do barbers and cobblers make the gods that we worship:- William Thackeray Early modern empires and Symbolic Power: The Role of self-presentation and majesty The Projection of Power 6. Greater trade connections brought 7. -great prosperity,greater centralization 8. Territory and population grow, so does need to project power 9. Need to represent reasons why rule is legitimate "Divine right" Example: Emperor Jahangir Mughal Empire (lived 1569-1627, reigned 1605-1627 Commonalities of Mughal,Ming and some European Empirres: • All power Making history (lecture 5) Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II (portait) Maps: a different kind of portrait 10. maps can say a lot about the ways people use a place 11. or how they want to use a place Maps of the familiar and unfamiliar Imperial mapmaking in the 1660's : China,Russia and France taxation and state power what is necessary for a state to collect taxes? seeing like a state: the french cadastre • cadastre: " an official rester of the quantity,value,and ownership of real estate used in apportioning taxes • maps were making a new development for empires and the ability for them to compete against each other A tool of state power: a cadastre map is an instrument of control which both reflects and consolidates the power of those who commission it the cadastre was all a map of imperials struggle how did it reflected and enabled imperial expansion? The cadastre and the census were cousins A map can say a lot about the mapmaker Making History (lecture 6) vermeer (1664) : 12. what is this woman doing in the painting? 13. weighing 2 coins; were different currencies at this; 14. woman is pregnant; christianity the picture Part 1: Silver • "A river of silver" • Some scholars have written of "the silver century" beginning around 1570 Mining in the Americas: Potosi • wealth of the silver mine - desire spanish showed for the silver Manila and the Ox Hide • assisnating sullemain • It became the nexus where the chinese economy made contact with the European economy China: "the tomb of European Moneys" The primary destination of silver, whose demand propelled global trade 2 primary reasons china drove the silver trade: • silver brought twice as much gold in China as it did in Europe • The Chinese produced such good and cheap products that they had little demand for European goods -Silver was on of the only things that the Europeans could trade with them. -(firearms were an exception) The roles of Europe and China in early global trade At firs they took different approaches to the relationship between the state and the economy Mercantilism • The European theory linking trade and state power • State power was directly tied to wealth • It treated wealth as finite , globally fixed -Ones countries gain is another's loss -Must import greater value than is exported • Did not account for effects like inflation Chinese approach to State power and the Economy • Until 1567 the Chinese emperors attempted to limit private wealth and corrupting influence of wealth • After 1567, emperors still emphasized the control of private wealth and limiting moral corruption. vermeer: Making History (lecture 7) The visual display of Quantitative Information An exemplary case: Charles-Joseph Minard, Napoleon's Russian Campaign 1812-1813 Charles-Joseph Minard, Napoleaon's Russian campaign International Trade and the Development of Data Graphics International trade was actually one of the first subjects William Playfair (1759-1823) : A scoundrel and Innovator William Playfair 15. between 1786 and 1801 he invented or transformed the time series line graph 16. be careful not to take play fairs numbers and figures as accurate Pros vs visual images vs data graphics Pros vs Visual Images like painting: • Prose -Easier to establish eyewitness credentials -Abstract ideas are more easily represented -Better at representing long,dispersed events -Direct quotation and reference is usually clearer -No limit on amount of detail or description Data Graphics: Good at… Time: they can show change over time (example,time-series) efficiently and effectively Causuality: changes over time can be used to imply or argue about what caused the changes Compression: bringing large amounts of data together in a single image Making History (Lecture 8) -Midterm exam structure -Reminder that the textbook has focus questions at the beginning of chapters and key terms and study questions at the end of chapters, course reader questions ect. Gilt Coconut cup, The Netherlands 1530's Wunderkammer contained 3 general types of objects: 17. Naturalia (products of nature) 18. Arteficialia (or artefacta, the products of man) 19. Scientifica ( -What role did unicorn horns play in the Wunderkammer? The wunderkammer and the question of the order of nature and its categories coral: it was one of the typical objects because it was unclear to many if it was a vegetable or mineral Making History (Lecture 9) 20. Midterm: AA112 The Atlantic System: • The atlantic system developed from roughly 1500 to the early-1800's , connection disparate parts of the atlantic through the movement of goods, people, and ideas. -An interconnected "Atlantic world" emerged -Trade, colonization, and slavery were at its core. -Eventually, independence movements and democratic revolutions as well • The atlantic system transformed the Americas,Caribbean,Africa and Europe -Created slave societies in the Caribbean and Americas -Enriched Europe and created a consumer boom -Enriched some elites while depopulating and politically unsettling Atlantic Africa • Infections from tooth decay became a significant causes of pain and death in Europe by the 18th century. (Sugar was a major factor) The great Thomas: • Le Grand Thomas, the tooth puller on the Pont-Neuf in Paris was one of the most famous figures in the city • stories and prints about him • People were caused so much pain and discomfort (and death) by infected teeth, they didn't mind having them yanked out Tooth Decay and the Atlantic system: • rise of consumerism, change of European diet • New European dependence on Atlantic commodities Coffee Houses: • another sign of changing power of consumption • go to talk about political and social events of the day, and consume coffee • Rise of coffee and tea drinking, only encourage the popularity of sugar (coffee=bitter, sugar made it taste better) Sugar at the Birth of the Atlantic System: • First Atlantic plantations on the isla
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