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HLTA02H3 (229)
Lecture

These are Chapter 3 Notes from the textbook

8 Pages
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Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTA02H3
Professor
Michelle Silver

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Chapter Three: The Emerging Public Health System in Canada
Introduction
Public health policy and practice focus on preventing injury and illness
Between the late 18th century and the early 20th century health care services
generally were left to the market where many unregulated service providers
competed for customers
In the early 20th century, efforts were made to develop and regulate health
care providers and managed a health care system
For the last century health care focused mainly on medical and hospital care
In the last two or three decades, efforts were made to reform the Canadian
medical care system to a health care system
Health promotion has recently become a goal of health policy, encouraging and
empowering individuals to make healthy choices and discouraging from unhealthy
choices
It draws attention to many social determinants of health and illness that
effect the health status as a whole and as sub-groups in society
The new public health paradigm: this refers to the growing emphasis on health
promotion combined with more traditional concerns about illness prevention
Background
Every society is concerned with the health and well-being of its members
By the 18th century, some Western European societies were undergoing revolutionary
transformations dealing with social modernization
The shift from pre-modern to modern society has the following changes:
From an agricultural, non-market economy with little division of
labour and family-based production to an industrial, money-based
market economy with extensive division of labour and mass production
From rural to urban geographies
From decentralized political structures to centralized state
From communalism and personal (affective) ties to individualism and
impersonal, instrumental relations
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From a predominance of mysticism and religious knowledge to
rationalism and scientific knowledge
Not everyone agrees that a full change from pre-modern to modern society has
occurred
Some say that many features of modern society are present in the pre-modern
The resurgence of religious fundamentalisms can be seen as an example of
the non-teleological nature of social change
In the pursuit and production of wealth, the health and safety of the men, women
and children in society was ignored and undermined
The survival of capitalism was threatened
This was the initial cause of developing regulations for the health of
the capital working class through Factory acts and legislations that
limited the employment of children and hours and conditions of work
The rapid and uncontrolled urbanization of the population led to unsanitary and
unhealthy living conditions
There were unsafe water supplies and inadequate sewerage and waste systems,
causing diseases like typhoid, cholera, small pox, and tuberculosis to significantly
spread
Some initiatives in public health efforts were immunization and public
education campaigns, effective water treatment and food safety mechanisms,
and new sewerage and waste disposal systems, efforts that are still the basis
of all public health systems
Colonialism was another reason to develop public health systems
It provided cheap raw materials and labour for the capitalist system, but it
also provided a worldwide market for the vast quantities of commodities that
the industrial mode of production made possible
The creation of new colonies caused establishment of new trade, travel, and
residential patterns for migrant workforces, merchants, and soldiers, creating
new disease vectors
Quarantine regulations were created, a step towards a global public
health system
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The development of the Canadian public health system continues to be impeded by
many structural features of Canadian society and geography
Constitutional jurisdiction over public health issues is divided between
federal, provincial/territorial, and municipal levels of government, making it
difficult to plan and implement integrated and standardized approaches to
public health, and to develop and reform the health care system
Canadas small and dispersed population makes it difficult for municipal and
provincial governments independently to raise tax revenues necessary for
public health systems
Despite all this, the Canadian public health care system has been doing reasonably
well for most of the 20th century, however many of the most dramatic developments
in public health crises were the result of the current phase of globalization
Contaminated water problems in the 1990s caused many of the local news media to
announce boil water advisories for many communities
Other public health problems included:
Mad cow disease or Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), known as
variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) or new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob
disease (nvCJD) when transferred from cows to humans
It is a fatal brain-wasting disease of cattle
Caused by changes in feeding patterns of market-oriented beef
production
Could be caused by including animal offal in cattle feed
HIV/AIDS
Began in the summer of 1981 and has since then caused the deaths of
approx. 25 million people, making it one of the most lethal epidemics
in human history
Most cases are currently in sub-Saharan Africa and it is more
prevalent in the poor
Antiretroviral drugs that can help manage its symptoms and delay
death are not affordable by the poor
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
Bird flu
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Description
Chapter Three: The Emerging Public Health System in Canada Introduction Public health policy and practice focus on preventing injury and illness Between the late 18 century and the early 20 century health care services generally were left to the market where many unregulated service providers competed for customers th In the early 20 century, efforts were made to develop and regulate health care providers and managed a health care system For the last century health care focused mainly on medical and hospital care In the last two or three decades, efforts were made to reform the Canadian medical care system to a health care system Health promotion has recently become a goal of health policy, encouraging and empowering individuals to make healthy choices and discouraging from unhealthy choices It draws attention to many social determinants of health and illness that effect the health status as a whole and as sub-groups in society The new public health paradigm: this refers to the growing emphasis on health promotion combined with more traditional concerns about illness prevention Background Every society is concerned with the health and well-being of its members By the 18 century, some Western European societies were undergoing revolutionary transformations dealing with social modernization The shift from pre-modern to modern society has the following changes: From an agricultural, non-market economy with little division of labour and family-based production to an industrial, money-based market economy with extensive division of labour and mass production From rural to urban geographies From decentralized political structures to centralized state From communalism and personal (affective) ties to individualism and impersonal, instrumental relations www.notesolution.com
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