These are Chapter 3 Notes from the textbook

33 views8 pages
1 Mar 2011
School
Department
Course
Chapter Three: The Emerging Public Health System in Canada
Introduction
๎€Public health policy and practice focus on preventing injury and illness
๎€Between the late 18th century and the early 20th century health care services
generally were left to the market where many unregulated service providers
competed for customers
๎€‚In the early 20th century, efforts were made to develop and regulate health
care providers and managed a health care system
๎€For the last century health care focused mainly on medical and hospital care
๎€‚In the last two or three decades, efforts were made to reform the Canadian
medical care system to a health care system
๎€Health promotion has recently become a goal of health policy, encouraging and
empowering individuals to make healthy choices and discouraging from unhealthy
choices
๎€‚It draws attention to many social determinants of health and illness that
effect the health status as a whole and as sub-groups in society
๎€The โ€œnew public healthโ€ paradigm: this refers to the growing emphasis on health
promotion combined with more traditional concerns about illness prevention
Background
๎€Every society is concerned with the health and well-being of its members
๎€By the 18th century, some Western European societies were undergoing revolutionary
transformations dealing with social modernization
๎€‚The shift from pre-modern to modern society has the following changes:
๎€ƒFrom an agricultural, non-market economy with little division of
labour and family-based production to an industrial, money-based
market economy with extensive division of labour and mass production
๎€ƒFrom rural to urban geographies
๎€ƒFrom decentralized political structures to centralized state
๎€ƒFrom communalism and personal (affective) ties to individualism and
impersonal, instrumental relations
www.notesolution.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
๎€ƒFrom a predominance of mysticism and religious knowledge to
rationalism and scientific knowledge
๎€Not everyone agrees that a full change from pre-modern to modern society has
occurred
๎€‚Some say that many features of modern society are present in the pre-modern
๎€‚The resurgence of religious fundamentalisms can be seen as an example of
the non-teleological nature of social change
๎€In the pursuit and production of wealth, the health and safety of the men, women
and children in society was ignored and undermined
๎€‚The survival of capitalism was threatened
๎€ƒThis was the initial cause of developing regulations for the health of
the capital working class through Factory acts and legislations that
limited the employment of children and hours and conditions of work
๎€The rapid and uncontrolled urbanization of the population led to unsanitary and
unhealthy living conditions
๎€There were unsafe water supplies and inadequate sewerage and waste systems,
causing diseases like typhoid, cholera, small pox, and tuberculosis to significantly
spread
๎€‚Some initiatives in public health efforts were immunization and public
education campaigns, effective water treatment and food safety mechanisms,
and new sewerage and waste disposal systems, efforts that are still the basis
of all public health systems
๎€Colonialism was another reason to develop public health systems
๎€‚It provided cheap raw materials and labour for the capitalist system, but it
also provided a worldwide market for the vast quantities of commodities that
the industrial mode of production made possible
๎€‚The creation of new colonies caused establishment of new trade, travel, and
residential patterns for migrant workforces, merchants, and soldiers, creating
new disease vectors
๎€ƒQuarantine regulations were created, a step towards a global public
health system
www.notesolution.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
๎€The development of the Canadian public health system continues to be impeded by
many structural features of Canadian society and geography
๎€‚Constitutional jurisdiction over public health issues is divided between
federal, provincial/territorial, and municipal levels of government, making it
difficult to plan and implement integrated and standardized approaches to
public health, and to develop and reform the health care system
๎€‚Canadaโ€™s small and dispersed population makes it difficult for municipal and
provincial governments independently to raise tax revenues necessary for
public health systems
๎€Despite all this, the Canadian public health care system has been doing reasonably
well for most of the 20th century, however many of the most dramatic developments
in public health crises were the result of the current phase of globalization
๎€Contaminated water problems in the 1990s caused many of the local news media to
announce โ€œboil waterโ€ advisories for many communities
๎€Other public health problems included:
๎€‚โ€œMad cow diseaseโ€ or Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), known as
variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) or new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob
disease (nvCJD) when transferred from cows to humans
๎€ƒIt is a fatal brain-wasting disease of cattle
๎€ƒCaused by changes in feeding patterns of market-oriented beef
production
๎€ƒCould be caused by including animal offal in cattle feed
๎€‚HIV/AIDS
๎€ƒBegan in the summer of 1981 and has since then caused the deaths of
approx. 25 million people, making it one of the most lethal epidemics
in human history
๎€ƒMost cases are currently in sub-Saharan Africa and it is more
prevalent in the poor
๎€ƒAntiretroviral drugs that can help manage its symptoms and delay
death are not affordable by the poor
๎€‚Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
๎€‚Bird flu
www.notesolution.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Chapter three: the emerging public health system in canada. public health policy and practice focus on preventing injury and illness. between the late 18th century and the early 20th century health care services generally were left to the market where many unregulated service providers competed for customers. In the early 20th century, efforts were made to develop and regulate health care providers and managed a health care system. for the last century health care focused mainly on medical and hospital care. In the last two or three decades, efforts were made to reform the canadian medical care system to a health care system. health promotion has recently become a goal of health policy, encouraging and empowering individuals to make healthy choices and discouraging from unhealthy choices. I t draws attention to many social determinants of health and illness that effect the health status as a whole and as sub-groups in society.

Get access

Grade+20% OFF
$8 USD/m$10 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Grade+
Homework Help
Study Guides
Textbook Solutions
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
Booster Class
40 Verified Answers
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Class+
Homework Help
Study Guides
Textbook Solutions
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
Booster Class
30 Verified Answers