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Lecture 7

HLTB 11 Lecture 7: Nutritionl 7

6 Pages

Health Studies
Course Code
Thomas M S Wolever

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Chapter 7: Energy Balance and Weight Management  BMI = Weight/Height (KG/M ) 2  Underweight: < 18.5  Normal: 18.5 – 24.9  Overweight: 25-29.9  Obese: >30  High mortality rate for groups who are not normal  Globesity: 60% of Canadians overweight and Obese  Increase rate of High blood pressure, Diabetes and Heart Disease  Healthy body weight: RR = 1  Development of diabetes  Pathway 1: Obesity  Increase in the size of adipose cells  increase in Free fatty acid  FFA utilization by muscle and liver (oxidation and storage as triglycerides = production of lipid) lipotoxitity  Pancreases Beta-cell Failure OR insulin resistance in liver, muscle, adipose tissue  Type 2 diabetes  Obesity  Increase in the size of adipose cells  inflammation  insulin resistance in liver muscle and adipose tissue  diabetes.  Cancer: disease characterized by a series of genetic mutation that result in  De-differentiate (no longer function as intended)  Becoming PROLIFERATIVE (grow uncontrollably; does not respond to stop signal)  Cannot repair its damage DNA  Becomes resistant to programmed cells death (apoptosis)  Obesity:  Colon cancer: Increase FFA release  insulin resistance  more insulin in body  (in colon), Cells proliferate/no apoptosis  Tumour  Obesity  increase adipose tissue mass  more synthesis of estrogen in adipose tissue  more free estrogen  (in breast) Cell proliferation/no apoptosis) tumour cells  Gall Bladder Disease  Excessive production of cholesterol in the liver  Deposition of solid cholesterol in gall bladder  Also a consequence of rapid weight loss  Rapid loss of body fat increases cholesterol synthesis  Sleep apnea: interruption of breathing during sleep  Poor sleep and excessive fatigue during the day  Fatty tissue in neck compress the airway and block airflow  Joint Disorder:  Osteoarthritis: breakdown of cartilage that cushion the joints, weight increases risk because of excessive pressure on joints  Gout: uric acid reposition in joints, increase risk with insulin resistance, obesity  Calories  4 carbs  4 protein  7 alcohol  9 fats  Converting food energy in ATP 1. Glycolysis Breaks glucose to pyruvate = Acetyl CoA 2. Beta-oxidation breaks Fatty acid = Acetyl CoA 3. Deanimation of Amino Acid = Acetyl CoA 4. Enter citric cycle after being broken down 5. Energy from electrons is used to make ATP  Total Energy Expenditure (TTE)  Basal Metabolism: Energy required to involuntary process needed to support life  Expressed as basal metabolic rate (KCAL EXPENDED/UNIT OF TIME)  60-75% of TTE = Metabolism  Decrease to weight loss by 100-400 kcal/day to ADAPT TO STARVATION  15-30% of TTE = Physical Activity  10% of TTE = Thermic Effect of food  Energy expended in the digestion, abspotion and storage of nutrients o Fats 2-3% o Carbs 8-9% o Protein 15-30%  Storing Energy as fat  Fatty acid is MAJOR CONTRIBUTOR  Minor contribution from Carbs and protein  Glucose and Amino-acid become Acetyl-CoA  Then becomes a fatty acid  Glycerol  Triglycerides for Storage  Estimating energy Requirement: Age, Weight, Physical activity and Height)  Lean Tissue = fat free  Loss of muscle mass with aging = Sarcopenia  Health body depends on  Good BMI  % body fat  Location of fat  Visceral fat; Central obesity (stubborn) associated with highest health risk  Healthy body weight measured by: BMI and Waist Circumference  Mechanism for regulating body weight  Hunger: internal signal that stimulate someone to acquire and consume food  Satiation: the feeling of fullness caused by food consumption that determines the length of meal (when it ends) (DURING MEAL)  Satiety: feeling of fullness and satisfaction caused by food consumption that reduces the desire to eat: experience after a meal- determines when next mean (AFTER MEAL)  Genetics:  Inheritance from parents: energy expend
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