Inquiry to develop language based on evidence by following certain rules and procedures. Reality is complex because different people have different perspectives. Produce new insight or knowledge: setting answerable research questions, collecting and analyzing data systematically, identifying patterns, association and theories. Research and knowledge contingent on: context of research, operational definitions and methods, designs informed. Epistemological assumptions: how we understand the nature of knowledge. People have different ontological and epistemological standpoints. Paradigm shift: change the way we think in a big way (have a lasting impact: example: evolution, same sex marriage. Epistemology: how we come to know things about he world. Methodology: principals, philosophies and approaches governing research. Methods: tools used for data collection and analysis. Inductive: theory hypothesis observation confirmation. Deductive: information pattern tentative hypothesis theory. Ontological single universal reality and can be measured only objectively. Epistemological knowledge must be scientifically verified and can be proven using scientific method. Determinism: events occur to natural laws and causes.