HLTB22H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Respiratory System, Paracrine Signalling, Beta Cell

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8 Feb 2016
School
Department
Course
Amrit&Grewal&
HLTB22&
Lecture'4:'Immune'System'
'
External/Internal'Environment'
1 Example&of&interaction&between&you&and&external&environment:&gastrointestinal&tract&
1 Respiratory&system&brings&in&air,&and&with&air&pathogens&
1 Body&will&try&to&maintain&your&internal&environment,&to&keep&it&separate&from&the&
external&
&
Pathogens'Activate'the'Immune'Response''
1 Viruses,&bacteria,&fungi,&etc.&
1 They&all&require&different&strategies&to&fight&them&
&
First'line'of'Defense'
1 Physical&and&chemical&
1 Skin&
Tight1fitting&sheet&of&cells:&reduces&ability&to&allow&pathogens&to&move&through&&
Dead&cells&continually&shed&
Keratin&secretion&
Sebaceous&glands&
Langerhans&cells:&cells&that&allow&the&body&to&know&that&there&may&be&pathogens&&
1 Eye/Mouth/Respiratory&Tract&
Mucous'Membranes:&Mucus&(secreted&by&goblet&cells)&
Saliva:&Antibodies,&lysozyme,&defensins&(proteins&that&punch&holes&in&bacteria;&
created&to&destroy&cell&walls&of&bacteria);&all&three&bind&to&antigens&that&are&
recognized&in&your&mouth&
Ciliated'cells:&mucociliary&escalator;&cilia&that&moves&material&up&into&throat&so&
you&can&cough&it&out&
1 Stomach&
Mucous&(protects&underlying&epithelial&cells&because&the&acidic&environment&will&
destroy&them,&also&prevents&the&pathogens&from&reaching&epithelial&cells)&
Hydrochloric&acid&(acidic&environment,&pH&of&2&or&less,&perfect&to&destroy&
pathogens)&
&
Second'Line'of'Defense'–'Innate'Immune'System'
1 Non&specific&defense&
1 Takes&out&basically&anything&it&can;&it&will&go&after&one&and&forget&about&the&rest&&
1 Multiple&components:&&
Phagocytosis'
! Process&by&phagocytes&take&in&material&and&destroy&it&
! Material&can&or&cannot&be&disease&causing&
! Classification&of&a&cell&
! Phagocytes&are&determined&by&if&they’re&primary&method&of&removing&
pathogens&is&by&taking&it&up&and&then&destroying&it&
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