HLTB21H3 Lecture Notes - Syphilis, Blood Test, Aortic Aneurysm

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2 Nov 2010
- 1494 -- King Charles VIII (France) invaded Italy - outbreak
- 1530 Giovanni de Vigo (personal surgeon to Pope Julius II)
-- man with an unclean woman - blue black or sometimes whitish
-- rashes, spreads through the body - recurs
1. Introduced to Europe by Christopher Columbus and his men upon returning from
the new world
2. Was endemic in Africa and made its way up to the Mediterranean - became
widespread and by the 16th century -- 25% of Europe was infected
- Pamphlet on syphilis - 4 editions -- 1495 - A Fine Treatise on the Origin of the
French Evil
- Girolamo Fracas Toro (1478-1553) - Venetian physician
- shepherd boy named Syphilus insulted God and punished with horrible disease
Names: morbas gallicus (late 15th century Europe), The French Disease (Italy and
Germany), Italian disease (France), Spanish disease (Dutch), Polish disease
(Russians), Christian disease (Turks), British disease (Tahiti), Great pox (distinguish
from small pox), Lues or Lues verenea (veneral plague), ____________
- John Hunter (1728-1793) -- injected gonorrhoea into body and developed signs of
syphilis and established that the two were the same
- Philippe Ricord (1799-1889) -- gonorrhoea and syphilis are different
- three stages of syphilis: primary, secondary and tertiary
- Rudolph Virchow (1821-1902) -- syphilis was spread through the body by blood
- caused by treponema pallidum
- extremely fragile spirochete surviving only briefly outside the host
- only human host
- sexually transmitted disease - direct person to person contact with sores -- close
contact with open lesion -- in utero -- transfusion of infected blood
- great imitator -- signs and symptoms are indistinguishable with others
- 1920s -- 9000 Americans/year, 60 000 were born infected
- 1940 -- 13 000 annual death
- 1949 -- < 6000 annual death (decline due to antibiotics)
- 1970 -- < 0.2/10 000 annual deaths in US
- 12 million cases of syphilis/year worldwide
- 2002 -- over 32 000 cases in US with male predominance
- 4 x as many cases than 1997 in 2002
- Latin America and the Carribbean, Sub-Saharan Africa, South and South-east Asia,
North Africa and the Middle East
- less in Australia and New Zealand due to geography
- contracted through someone with syphilis
- pregnant woman can pass on to her baby
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