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HLTB03 lec 1.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Michelle Silver

HLTB03: Foundations in Health Studies Lecture 1: Life expectancy at birth of both sexes: # of years a given cohort (ie. Country/national state) is expected to live -How is there variation? Lot of variation  in North America among highest – 80-83 yrs • Sub-Saharan Africa – people born in 2009 expected to live <50 yrs Reasons for variation in life expectancy? • Late Ice Age/ hunter gathers life expec. – 38 yrs o So L.E. varies by time and geographic location / cohort • According to world bank: Average L.E. of all countries on Earth = 70 yrs Why is there variation? • Well over time makes sense  b/c of higher standard of living then hunter/gathers but in current time why is there a difference among countries? o Medical facilities differ o Climate  disease that occur in some high temp. areas such as malaria o Agriculture o Universal healthcare  access to healthcare o Advancement of medical technologies o Free healthcare systems o Advancement of medical technologies o Economic stability of country  to be able to import/export goods  i.e. in Canada we have had climate to grow food but we are rich enough to import goods o physical infrastructure  sewages, roads, public infrastructure ; signal stops etc. o educational system o public government / legal system Reasons Explained by: • Epidemiological Transition: o Theory of demographic transition: as economy changes from low to high per capta income there is a transition from high mortality and high fertility to low mortality and low fertility o Explains L.E. now -3 stages in pattern of disease which suggest: 1. That first we have age of pestilence and famine and communication have low S.E.S. large external families and high rates of mortality 2. Then we shift towards industrial dominant age  age of receding pandemics, decrease in epidemics, and decrease in mortality, but still increase in fertility rate, increase in terms of income, but still large families and decrease in mortality 3. Shift into modern times: age of degenerative man-made diseases decrease infertility rates, family size smaller, number of kids born decreases, living longer = L.E. increases, deaths due to cancer, strokes, heart disease, emerging industrial disease  degenerative disease 4 paradigms for studying health from a sociological perspective: 1. Structural functionalism 2. Conflict theory 3. Symbolic interactions/interpretive theory 4. Feminist/ ant-racial/ intersectionality theory Sociologists mainly use: Structural functionalism Paradigm: • Our social system composed of parts (i.e. healthcare system/family/university and are all interrelated  work together to maintain order
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