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HLTA01 Lecture 08 Notes.docx

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Health Studies
Course Code
Caroline Barakat

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1 HLTA01 Lecture 8 (Malaria)  History:  One of the oldest disease  Earlier records dates back to 2700 BC to a Chinese text “Nei Chang”  Hippocratic corpus was the first to describe the malaria symptoms and what happened to the people with malaria in the spleen; differentiated the different rd th types of malaria (where fever appears 3 day vs. 4 day)  4 century, evidence of the endemic in Greece = Roman Fever; contributed to the decline of this empire  At this time the belief was that it resulted from “bad air” or “poisonous vapours” in the marshes  Reached to Spain and Russia in the 12 century  Reached to England in the 14 century  15 century it reached the New world, thought to be have spread by the people of England  Many episodes worldwide through 1800s  In the 19 century in the new world it became prevalent like the Mississippi Valley, NE US, American subtropics and tropics including Caribbean  Malaria in literature, mentioned in many important work by Dante (= talks about symptoms, evident that he has experienced it), William Shakespeare used the word “ague” (English word for malaria) indicating how common it was at that time, since it was an epidemic th  By the 19 century people started studying this disease especially due to the availability of microscopes  Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran (1845-1922): he studied malaria in the 19 th century; observed black-brown malaria pigment in infected blood which is a process he called exflagellation  In 1898 Robert Koch argued that human malaria was caused by a mosquito bit but was unsuccessful in his efforts  Manson mentored Ross performing a series of experiment and they examined the stomach of thousands of mosquitoes (but he used the wrong malaria); observed wartlike oocysts that developed 4-5 days after feeding on infected blood; observed stripes or ridges that develop 7-8 days later; discovered the infectious stages in mosquito salivary glands in sparrows  Giovanni Battista Grassi reported that there is a specific type of mosquito that carries that human malaria called the “Anopheles claviger”  Epidemiology:  Killed more than half the people who have ever lived on this planet  Estimated ever 10-30 seconds a person dies of malaria (90% from Africa)  300-500M cases of malaria each year  2-3 M deaths annually  Majority is among children aged 5 years or younger since they cannot handle the symptoms like the dehydrations  Currently endemic in over 100 countries 2 HLTA01 Lecture 8 (Malaria)  Most prevalent in rural tropical areas below elevations of 1000m (due to the existence of the water, climate, breeding ground for mosquito)  Plasmodium falciparum(a parasite of malaria) mostly found in the tropics; can lead to death and the most dangerous  P. falciparum and P. vivax account for 95% of infections  P. vivax is distributed more widely but less dangerous than P. falciparum  Common in Haiti, N. Africa, Caribbean  Kids aged 2-9  Epidemiology in Canada:  Reportable communicable disease in Canada since 1929  No longer endemic in Canada – imported disease  Number of imported cases varies generally around 400 cases  Estimated that only 30-50% of cases are reported to public health agencies  Etiology  Acute flu-like illness caused by parasite of the genus Plasmodium  4 specific to humans: 1. Plasmodium falciparum (high risk of a fatal infection) – cause cerebral malaria/malignant terian (third) malaria
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