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Lecture 4

Lecture 4 In-class Notes [TB]

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Lecture 4 - Tuberculosis: The white plague Jan 27, 2010 History - TB has been present in the human population since antiquity - Egyptian mummies from 2400 BC show definite pathological signs of tubercular decay - The term phthisis or consumption appears first in Greek literature - Homer 800 BC - 460 BC - Hipppocrates identified phthisis(pulmonary TB) as the most widespread and fatal disease. He warned his fellow colleagues to avoid visiting cases in the late stages of the disease. - TB was documented in Egypt, India, and China as early as 5000,3300, and 2300 years ago respectively. - Typical skeletal abnormalities, including Potts deformities were found in mummies. - Suggestion that tuberculosis was limited to animals in prehistoric times until domestication of cattle and other animals. - TB epidemics throughout the world likely from changes in the host population and the environment rather from the introduction of foreign pathogens. - (1546) Fracastorius describes Modern Theory of Contagion; believes phthisis is caused by invisible germs in the lungs. - (1629) Consumption - leading cause of death(100% for infected people) in London - approximately 20% of all deaths - (1679) Franciscus Delaboe Sylvius discovrs the lung nodules, which he terms tubercles - 1720 - Benjamin Marten - suggests a version of the germ theory of TB, and speculates that it may be communicable from one individual to another - (1839) term tuberculosis first used - (1854) Dr. Hermann Brehmer - Doctoral Dissertation - Tuberculosis is a Curable Disease - institution of Gorbersdorf-introduction of the sanatorium in Silesia, Germany - Rest, fresh air, good nutirition and isolation - Treatments - specializing in diagnosis and recovery of patients - 1854 - Jean-Antoine Villemin - postulated a specific microorganism as the cause of the disease - 1882 - Dr. Robert Koch - Koch-German physician and scientist - discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB) - 1895 - Wilhelm Konrad con Rontgen - use of radiation to assess progression of disease - 1920 - 1950 Mass screening programs implemented based on Tuberculin, x-rays (may show an individual is exposed to disease but might not be infected) Etiology - Agent - tubercle bacillus germ, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an acid-fast bacillus (after being treated with certain dyes is not decolorized on subsequent treatment with a mineral acid) - 3 main types of the human bacillus - Type I - found in Indian; least virulent - TypeA-Africa, China, Japan, Europe, N.America - Type B - Exclusively in Europe and N.America Forms of Tuberculosis - Several animal forms of the bacillus
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