4 Dec 2018

1. Human papilloma virus serotypes 1 and 2 (HPV-1 & HPV-2) both cause benign skin warts. Explain the likely outcome of the following two scenarios and explain in detail why you expect these outcomes. In both scenarios, a person is infected with HPV-1 in January 2012, develops a skin wart which resolves (disappears) without treatment by December 2012. Scenario 1: The same person is re-infected with HPV-1 in January 2013. Scenario 2: the same person is infected with HPV-2 in January 2013.

2. Why do herpes simplex virus type 1 or 2 (HSV-1 or HSV-2) infections recur at or near the site of the original infection? Why is HSV-1 or HSV-2 infection not eliminated from the body when the symptoms of the initial infection subside? Explain both answers in detail.

3. Describe the mechanisms responsible for antigenic drift and antigenic shift in influenza virus. Which mechanism is responsible for the yearly changes in influenza virus and which may create strains of influenza virus that result in pandemics?

4. What organism causes syphilis? How can it be treated and prevented? Describe the stages of syphilis including the order in which they appear and the symptoms of each stage.

5. Name and describe in detail the three stages of disease caused by HIV infection in the order in which they occur. What defines the beginning and end of each stage and what events occur to cause the transitions from each stage to the next?

6. Name and describe the five modes of action of antibacterial drugs. Give an example of a drug that works by each mode of action and state whether it is broad or narrow spectrum and/or suited for treatment of Gram negative or Gram positive infections.

7. Explain the mechanism of action of the antiviral drug acyclovir. Why does it not harm uninfected cells?

8. Name and describe one of the seven most common neglected tropical diseases. Describe the organism that causes the disease, the symptoms, drugs used to treat it and the approximate number of people affected. Why is it necessary to treat the entire population in a geographic region rather than just those suffering symptoms in order to prevent new infections?

9. Describe and explain the causes of rheumatic fever. Why is it important for patients to complete the dose of antibiotics prescribed for "strep throat"?

10. What organism causes Lyme disease? How is it transmitted to humans and why is it most prevalent in parts of New England and the northern Midwest? Describe the possible long-term sequelae of Lyme disease.

11. Describe the five stages of the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. Which stages are seen in asymptomatic infected individuals and which are found in people that have active infectious tuberculosis?

12. Describe the six stages of rabies virus infection and pathology including the common sources of infection in the USA. Explain why fatal disease can be prevented by vaccination after infection.

13. Describe the four mechanisms by which bacteria can become resistant to antibacterial drugs. Describe two ways bacteria may be genetically modified to achieve drug resistance naturally.

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Elin Hessel
Elin HesselLv2
5 Dec 2018

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