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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Malariafever plague History Old disease Nei Chang 2700 BC Hippocratic corpusThose who drink stagnant water have always large stiff spleens and hard thin hot stomachs while their shoulders collarbones and faces are emaciated the fact is that their flesh dissolves to feed the spleenRoman Fever belief resulting from poisonous vapours that emanate from Roman Campagna malaria ie bad airthththth12 centurySpain and Russia 14 centuryEngland 15 centuryNew world 1800sworldwide19 centuryprevalent in the Mississippi Valley NE US American subtropics and tropics including Carribean1880 Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran observe blackbrown malaria pigment in infected blood process he called exflagellation1898Robert Koch argued that human malaria was caused by mosquito bite but unsuccessful in effortsRonald RossPatrick Manson Mentored by Manson Ross performed a series of experiments Examined the stomachs of thousands of mosquitoes Observed wartlike oocysts that developed 4 5 days after feeding on infected blood Observed stripes or ridges that develop 78 days later Discovered the infectious stages in the mosquito salivary glands in sparrows1898 Giovanni Battista Grassi able to report that the Anopheles claviger carrier of human malariamala aria bad air in Italianthought to be caused by marsh airmiasma After pathogen idd Malaria refers to disease rather than agent Literature Dantes InfernoAs one who has the shivering of the quartan so near that he has his nails already pale and trembles all still keeping the shade such I became when those words were uttered He died of malaria William Shakespeareague English word for malaria DistributionIncidenceDavid Clydes categories 1 where malaria never existed 2 where controleradication campaigns eliminated endemic malaria 3 continuing control in endemic countries AsiaAmericas 4 little or no organized control Subsaharan Africa Epidemiology has killed more than half the people who have ever lived on this planet Every 1030 seconds a person dies of malaria 300500 M cases of malaria each year 90 in Africa 23 M deaths annually majority children 5 yrs or less Currently an endemic in over 100 countries where Anopheles is present and much tourism leads to disease imported to other countries Endemic Countries Africa esp tropics in Africa southsoutheast Asia South America Mexico OceaniaMost prevalent in rural tropical areas below elevations of 1000 m Spleen rateslook for enlarged spleens in kids 29yrs old to det prevalence of malaria Due to agricultural colonization pioneering unexploited lands forest clearing Prevention of
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