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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 Notes.docx

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Health Studies
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Caroline Barakat

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Syphilis- The Great Pox History 1494: King Charles Vlll of France invades Italy ( Outbreak of a new epidemic in Naples Following year mysterious affliction reported in England, France, Germany... Columbus return from the New World to Europe (old world) Naples because soliders brought it back Missionaries who were put in army may have had sypahilis Theories 1) Introduced to Europe by Christopher Columbus and his men upon returning from the new world o Written record o Skeletal remains from the Americas o The disease spread like wild fire around Europe, reaching the Shetland Islands in the far north of Scotland by 1510 2) Was endthic in Africa and made its way up to the Mediterranean, became wide spread and by the 16 century, 25% of Europe was infected  Many populations of native Americans themselves were decimated by syphilis in the 16th century after the arrival of the Europeans - Unified theory: different diseases are the same in terms of agent (origins are the same) but because some environments are different they have diferent mutation - Non-unified theory: not the case - Vaneral syphylis: main concern because it is endemic all over the world - Pamphlet on syphilis [A Fine Treatise on the Origin of the French Evil ] - Appears in four different editions in Latin and German in the last years of the fifteenth century - Printed during the course of a syphilis epidemic which originated in France and reached Germany in 1495 Origin of the term ‘Syphilis’  We see it as venereal syphilis  Girolamo Fracastoro (1478 - 1553)  Venetian physician  1530 epic - Syphilis sive morbus gallicus ("Syphilis or The French Disease")  Poem about a shepherd boy named Syphilus who insulted a God and was punished by that god with a horrible disease. Other terms for ‘syphilis’  Morbus gallicus – late-fifteenth century Europe  “The French disease" in Italy and Germany  "Italian disease" in France  "Spanish disease“ by the Dutch  "Polish disease“ by the Russians  "Christian disease“ by the Turks  "British disease“ in Tahiti  “Great pox“ - to distinguish it from smallpox  "Lues" (or Lues venerea, Latin for "venereal plague“ – used in 18 century Europe) venus (transmitted sexually)  "Cupid's disease"  Grandgore in Scotland  "The Black Lion” refer to the ulcers suffered by British soldiers in Portugal  Because of different manifestations in the body, people become confused with what they have  Undertook flawed self-experimentation by injecting himself with material taken from a patient with gonorrhoea  He developed the signs of syphilis and concluded the two infections were the same  He eventually died of heart problem –tertiary syphilis  Patient had both syphilis and gonnorrhea  John Hunter (1728 – 1793): Founder of scientific surgery  Philippe Ricord (1799-1889)  Demonstrated that gonorrhoea and syphilis were different diseases  Determined
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