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HLTC22H3 (110)
Lecture 9

HLTB01 Lecture 9.pdf

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Michelle Silver

HLTB01 Lecture 9 November-06-12 3:09 PM Cue Column: Note-Taking Area: Research Methods • Age effects (biological changes) • cohort effects (something in generation) • environmental effects (point in time) • Research ○ Cross-sectional  Group of people in 1 point of time  Snapshot  Ex. Intelligence test (old vs. young) □ Older scored worse  Problem: 1 period of time  Range of different age groups  Concern: ◊ Cohort effects - education (younger had more education) ○ Longitudinal  Group of people in 2/more periods of time  Ex. How aging effects intelligence overtime; test same age group at different intervals (ex. From 25 to 80 years old --> same group from start to end) □ Process of aging ○ Time-lag  Same age, diff periods of time (25 year olds in 70s, 80s etc.) ○ Sequential design:  Series of cross-sectional and put them in longitudinal □ Snapshots over time • Methods ○ Quantitative  Relationships between and among numerical measurements  Pro: gather wide range of data on lot of issues & can generalize  Con: only certain questions (no insight/reason) ○ Qualitative  Pro: open ended questions  Con: limited to small samples (can't generalize) • Research ○ Goal: to reduce uncertainty about important issues • Research Methods ○ Open-end  What did you have for breakfast ○ More specific  Did you skip breakfast? Yes/no ○ Specified response options • Sampling ○ Process of selecting small sample that can generalize results to population ○ Population vs. sample  Census: survey collection of entire population ○ Target population: population want to observe ○ Sample/survey population: population can observe • Random sample ○ Target population: population want to observe ○ Sample/survey population: population can observe • Random sample ○ Items drawn from population in such way each time an item
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