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Lecture 10

HLTB02H3 LECTURE 10.docx

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Health Studies
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R Song

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HLTB02H3 – LECTURE 10—HIV/AIDS Relative to other diseases, most kids that die are not dying of HIV/AIDS, but this disease is so highly affected by SES, human behaviour and carries so much social stigma. Caused by RNA retrovirus of lentivirus family called HIV-1 (global, vs. HIVE-2 W. Africa) producting defects in immune system: loss of lumphocutes, impairment of T cells  Vertical transmission: during pregnancy, labour and delivery, breastfeeding  Blood transfusions  Drug use (contaminated needles)  Sexual transmission, unprotected consensual sex, child rape Symptoms in kids vary based on phase of infection and age  HIV disease progression faster in kids  Failure to thrive, delayed growth  Failure to reach developmental milestones on time  Enlarged lymph nodes, liver, spleen  Mental development affected  Opportunistic infections (ear, pneumonia, tonsillitis, sinus and throat, dermatitis, yeast, GI/diarrhea, colds, TB) o Increased susceptibility, reactivation of latent and/or acceleration of active TB  Harder to control due to drug resistance  Drug-resistant TB increasing globally o Greater risk of TB w/ HIV—12-14 mil. Ppl co-infected today o 250000ppl died w/ HIV associated w/ TB in 2006 o High disease rate in kids  Higher exposure to Mycobacterium TB w/ adults  Higher susceptibility to above  Nercous system impairments—seizures, difficulty walking Anti-Retrovirals  Meds, different classes of drugs that slow down the progression of disease (protease inhibitors, entry inhibitors, AZT)  Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART): combo of several ARVs (3 or 4) o Cost is prohibitive for people and nations o Patented drugs vs. generic drugs o High cost is what’s mostly preventing the eradication of this disease in Africa Stigma, used to be homosexual men, but affects women just as much, if not more due to gender inequality Affects tons of kids too, but rate of mortality is decreasing because of antiretrovirals AIDS ―Acquired Income Deficiency Syndrome‖ Proximate and Ultimate factors  Behavioural: sexual practices, attitudes, contraception beliefs, IV drug use, etc.  Medical incompetence and drug research  War and violence, rape as weapon of w
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