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Lecture 4

HLTB02 Lecture 4.docx

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

10/10/2012 HLTB02 Issues in Child Health and Development Lecture 4: Measures of Child Health and Cognitive Development - Scope of measuring child health o Know what kind of child care services need to be devised based on our understanding of child health  If you know that children are susceptible to a certain disease at a particular age, how can we devise a service that can reduce the incidence of the disease? o General child health performance  How is your child fairing against the norm? o Children go through many different developmental stages (all specific to domains)  Know that certain pathways will impact the future health of a child (ex: latent, cumulative, etc.)  Important to recognize when children progress slowly through stages or do not surpass stages at all (ex: developmental disability or child abuse) o Children’s basic physiology differs from that of adults  Children have less tolerance to pollutants than adults - Physiological Measures o Measures of the physical condition or state of the body o How the body physically works  As children age, their heart rate decreases (infants have heart beats of 100-160 bps) o Perry, 2000  Study looked at traumatized or maltreated children (chronic)  Post-trauma, male children have a higher resting heart rate (than the norm) • Evidence of difference around the age of 4 • Difference visible at a younger age  Post-trauma, female children have a lower resting heart rate (than the norm) • Evidence of difference around the age of 7 1 10/10/2012 • Difference visible at an older age than males o Lung Function – Pulmonary Function Test (PFTs)  Measures the size and function of the lungs  Spirometry - measures exhaling or inhaling of air  Used to assess conditions related to the lung function of a child  Normalized by age, weight, and height • Males tend to have bigger lungs than females - Anthropometric Measures o Focus on the variability in size and shape of the body  Focus on four building blocks: age, sex, length, and weight o Indices that are used to measure anthropometric:  Nutritional status • Weight-for-age category o Weight of the child at specific ages o Low values indicates underweight o Can reflect some sort of chronic or acute under-nutrition (body cannot absorb certain nutrition) • Height-for-age o Identifies chronic under-nutrition • Weight-for-height o Useful to measure short-term effects such as food supply, or acute under- nutrition • Undernourishment - food intake continuously insufficient to meet energy requirements • Under-nutrition - outcome of undernourishment, poor absorption and/or poor biological use of nutrients o Undernourishment can lead to under-nutrition  Past growth failures 2 10/10/2012 • Stunting for children is described as having a low length-for-age o Over two, use length-for-age o Under two, use height-for-age • Types of past-growth failures: o Chronic insufficient protein
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