Lecture Three Notes

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Linguistics Lecture 3September 30, 2010
The only things that can be nasal or oral are STOPS
Vowels and their classification:
-Produced with no major obstruction in the vocal tract so that air can flow
relatively freely through the mouth
-Criteria of vowel classification:
oChange in vowel quality (monophthongs-one vowel sound vs
dipthongs-two vowel sounds)
oTongue body height
oTongue body backness/frontness
oLip rounding-how round your lips are when you make a sound
oTenseness (i.e. the difference in bait and bet or pete or pit)
Monophthongs vs Dipthongs
-Whether the vowel quality stays stable throughout the vowel or not
oMonophtongs (simple vowels)
Vowels produced with one stable vowel quality
·Hot, hit, met, mat
oDipthongs
Vowels produced with a change in vowel quality
Consist of a vowel and a glide ([j] or [w])
·Hide, loud, boy, say
Tongue and body height
-Height of the tongue body
oHigh: heed, hit, whod, hood
oMid: head, hayed, hud, arrest
oLow: had, hot, hide, how
Backness of tongue body
-Backness of the highest point of the tongue body
oFront: heed, hid, hay, head
oCentral: hud, arrest, hi
oBack: hood , whod, hoe, boy
Lip rounding
-lip rounding
- rounded: whod, hoed
- undrounded: all other vowels
Tenseness
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-Tense vowels are produced with more extreme articulation than their lax
counterparts
-Tense vowels can occur word-finally in English but lax vowels cannot (except for
schwa)
*lax vowels cant end a word in English
Mid vowel is called a schwa Canada
When schwa is in stressed position we write is as a carrot
Front vowels
High front unrounded vowels
oTense & lax : small capital (i)
Mid front unrounded vowel
oTense & lax : (epsilon)
Low front unrounded vowel
oLax (ash)
Central vowels
Mid central unrounded vowels
oLax (caret & schwa)
oThese two vowels are almost identical except that schwa occurs in an
unstressed syllable or before [r] while carat occurs in a stressed syllable
Low central unrounded vowels
oTense [aj] & [aw]
Back vowels
High back unrounded vowels
oTense & lax [u]
Mid back rounded vowels
oTense: [oj] & [ow]
Low back unrounded vowels
oTense: back a palm, pot, bought, jaw, chalk, dog
Syllables
-Chest pulse theory: pulses of respiratory muscle activity correlate with syllables
-Jaw opening cycle: one cycle of oscillation of the jaw corresponds to a syllable
-Amplitude peaks: the # of syllables corresponds to the # of different amplitude
peaks in the acoustic syllables
Evidence for syllables
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Document Summary

The only things that can be nasal or oral are stops. Produced with no major obstruction in the vocal tract so that air can flow relatively freely through the mouth. Whether the vowel quality stays stable throughout the vowel or not: monophtongs (simple vowels)  vowels produced with one stable vowel quality.  vowels produced with a change in vowel quality.  consist of a vowel and a glide ([j] or [w]) Height of the tongue body: high: heed, hit, who"d, hood, mid: head, hayed, hud, arrest, low: had, hot, hide, how. Backness of the highest point of the tongue body: front: heed, hid, hay, head, central: hud, arrest, hi, back: hood , who"d, hoe, boy. Tense vowels are produced with more extreme articulation than their lax counterparts. Tense vowels can occur word-finally in english but lax vowels cannot (except for schwa) *lax vowels cant end a word in english.

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