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Lecture 3

Lecture Three Notes

Course Code
Chandan Narayan

of 5
Linguistics Lecture 3September 30, 2010
The only things that can be nasal or oral are STOPS
Vowels and their classification:
-Produced with no major obstruction in the vocal tract so that air can flow
relatively freely through the mouth
-Criteria of vowel classification:
oChange in vowel quality (monophthongs-one vowel sound vs
dipthongs-two vowel sounds)
oTongue body height
oTongue body backness/frontness
oLip rounding-how round your lips are when you make a sound
oTenseness (i.e. the difference in bait and bet or pete or pit)
Monophthongs vs Dipthongs
-Whether the vowel quality stays stable throughout the vowel or not
oMonophtongs (simple vowels)
Vowels produced with one stable vowel quality
·Hot, hit, met, mat
Vowels produced with a change in vowel quality
Consist of a vowel and a glide ([j] or [w])
·Hide, loud, boy, say
Tongue and body height
-Height of the tongue body
oHigh: heed, hit, whod, hood
oMid: head, hayed, hud, arrest
oLow: had, hot, hide, how
Backness of tongue body
-Backness of the highest point of the tongue body
oFront: heed, hid, hay, head
oCentral: hud, arrest, hi
oBack: hood , whod, hoe, boy
Lip rounding
-lip rounding
- rounded: whod, hoed
- undrounded: all other vowels
-Tense vowels are produced with more extreme articulation than their lax
-Tense vowels can occur word-finally in English but lax vowels cannot (except for
*lax vowels cant end a word in English
Mid vowel is called a schwa Canada
When schwa is in stressed position we write is as a carrot
Front vowels
High front unrounded vowels
oTense & lax : small capital (i)
Mid front unrounded vowel
oTense & lax : (epsilon)
Low front unrounded vowel
oLax (ash)
Central vowels
Mid central unrounded vowels
oLax (caret & schwa)
oThese two vowels are almost identical except that schwa occurs in an
unstressed syllable or before [r] while carat occurs in a stressed syllable
Low central unrounded vowels
oTense [aj] & [aw]
Back vowels
High back unrounded vowels
oTense & lax [u]
Mid back rounded vowels
oTense: [oj] & [ow]
Low back unrounded vowels
oTense: back a palm, pot, bought, jaw, chalk, dog
-Chest pulse theory: pulses of respiratory muscle activity correlate with syllables
-Jaw opening cycle: one cycle of oscillation of the jaw corresponds to a syllable
-Amplitude peaks: the # of syllables corresponds to the # of different amplitude
peaks in the acoustic syllables
Evidence for syllables
-native speaker intuitions
-settings to words to music
Syllabic and non-syllabic sounds
-Syllables have internal structures:
oNucleus:center-usually a vowel
oOnset: consonant that come b4 nucleus
oCoda- consonants that follow the nucleus
-Sometimes consonants occupy the nucleus position and these are called syllabic
consonants and marked by [,] <- a line under the representation
-In English, only liquids and nasals can be syllabic
-When a word consists of more than one syllable, some syllables are perceived as
more prominent than others
-Every word has a stress
-Stressed, schwa-like vowels become carat *
Primary and secondary stress
-When there are multiple stressed syllables, one syllable is more prominent
(primary stress [] than others (secondary stress [`])
Stress and vowel reduction
-Unstressed vowels tend to be short and reduced, often pronounced as a schwa
oCanada vs Canadian
-Speech also has suprasegmental characteristics (pitch, loudness, length) that can
vary independent of segmental characteristics (place and manner of articulation)
oPitch can be controlled by changing the tension of the vocal folds, which in
turn changes the frequency of vocal fold vibration
Tense vocal cords-> faster vibration-> higher pitch
Lax vocal cords-> slower vibrations->lower pitch
Similar to tuning your guitar
-Some languages use pitch to distinguish different word-level meanings
-Use of pitch to convey a sentence or discourse-level meaning
-Listing we knew, anna, lenny, mary and nora