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Lecture 3

Lecture Three Notes

5 Pages
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Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LINA01H3
Professor
Chandan Narayan

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Linguistics Lecture 3September 30, 2010
The only things that can be nasal or oral are STOPS
Vowels and their classification:
-Produced with no major obstruction in the vocal tract so that air can flow
relatively freely through the mouth
-Criteria of vowel classification:
oChange in vowel quality (monophthongs-one vowel sound vs
dipthongs-two vowel sounds)
oTongue body height
oTongue body backness/frontness
oLip rounding-how round your lips are when you make a sound
oTenseness (i.e. the difference in bait and bet or pete or pit)
Monophthongs vs Dipthongs
-Whether the vowel quality stays stable throughout the vowel or not
oMonophtongs (simple vowels)
Vowels produced with one stable vowel quality
·Hot, hit, met, mat
oDipthongs
Vowels produced with a change in vowel quality
Consist of a vowel and a glide ([j] or [w])
·Hide, loud, boy, say
Tongue and body height
-Height of the tongue body
oHigh: heed, hit, whod, hood
oMid: head, hayed, hud, arrest
oLow: had, hot, hide, how
Backness of tongue body
-Backness of the highest point of the tongue body
oFront: heed, hid, hay, head
oCentral: hud, arrest, hi
oBack: hood , whod, hoe, boy
Lip rounding
-lip rounding
- rounded: whod, hoed
- undrounded: all other vowels
Tenseness
www.notesolution.com
-Tense vowels are produced with more extreme articulation than their lax
counterparts
-Tense vowels can occur word-finally in English but lax vowels cannot (except for
schwa)
*lax vowels cant end a word in English
Mid vowel is called a schwa Canada
When schwa is in stressed position we write is as a carrot
Front vowels
High front unrounded vowels
oTense & lax : small capital (i)
Mid front unrounded vowel
oTense & lax : (epsilon)
Low front unrounded vowel
oLax (ash)
Central vowels
Mid central unrounded vowels
oLax (caret & schwa)
oThese two vowels are almost identical except that schwa occurs in an
unstressed syllable or before [r] while carat occurs in a stressed syllable
Low central unrounded vowels
oTense [aj] & [aw]
Back vowels
High back unrounded vowels
oTense & lax [u]
Mid back rounded vowels
oTense: [oj] & [ow]
Low back unrounded vowels
oTense: back a palm, pot, bought, jaw, chalk, dog
Syllables
-Chest pulse theory: pulses of respiratory muscle activity correlate with syllables
-Jaw opening cycle: one cycle of oscillation of the jaw corresponds to a syllable
-Amplitude peaks: the # of syllables corresponds to the # of different amplitude
peaks in the acoustic syllables
Evidence for syllables
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Linguistics Lecture 3 September 30, 2010 The only things that can be nasal or oral are STOPS Vowels and their classification: - Produced with no major obstruction in the vocal tract so that air can flow relatively freely through the mouth - Criteria of vowel classification: o Change in vowel quality (monophthongs-one vowel sound vs dipthongs-two vowel sounds) o Tongue body height o Tongue body backnessfrontness o Lip rounding-how round your lips are when you make a sound o Tenseness (i.e. the difference in bait and bet or pete or pit) Monophthongs vs Dipthongs - Whether the vowel quality stays stable throughout the vowel or not o Monophtongs (simple vowels) Vowels produced with one stable vowel quality Hot, hit, met, mat o Dipthongs Vowels produced with a change in vowel quality Consist of a vowel and a glide ([j] or [w]) Hide, loud, boy, say Tongue and body height - Height of the tongue body o High: heed, hit, whod, hood o Mid: head, hayed, hud, arrest o Low: had, hot, hide, how Backness of tongue body - Backness of the highest point of the tongue body o Front: heed, hid, hay, head o Central: hud, arrest, hi o Back: hood , whod, hoe, boy Lip rounding -lip rounding - rounded: whod, hoed - undrounded: all other vowels Tenseness www.notesolution.com
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