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Lecture 2

LINB06H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Coreference, Null-Subject Language, Financial Institution

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Juvenal Ndayiragije

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4 syntactic tests for constituency:
Replacement - if can replace a gp of words w/ a single word -> that gp of
words = a constituent
Stand alone - if a gp of words can be an ans to a Q -> that gp of words = a
Movement - if can move a gp of words in a sentence -> that gp of words =
a constituent
(a) clefting: put a string of words between it is & that @ beginning of a
e.g. it was [a brand new car] that she bought
(b) pseudoclefting: put a string of words b4 is what/who @ beginning of a
e.g. [a brand new car] is what she bought
(c) passive: make the sentence into passive voice
e.g. [a brand new car] was bought by him
Coordination - can only join constituents of same category
e.g. [the man] and [the woman] -> [the man and the woman]
Determining phrase head:
Stand alone - e.g. Fido itself can fulfill subject position
Agreement - e.g. dog -> dogs affect determiner that -> those
Semantics - e.g. N determines using which V
Phrase structure Rule(PSR):
NP - D (Adj) N
VP - (adv) V NP (adv)
PP - P (NP/PP)
adjP - (adv) A (PP)
advP - (adv) adv
TP - NP (aux) VP
Lexical ambiguity: bank = 1. Financial institution 2. Land alongside river
Structural ambiguity: Nicole hit the boy w/ an umbrella = 1. Nicole used an
umbrella to hit the boy 2. Nicole hit a boy who had an umbrella
Eliminate PSR cuz unconstrained
X-bar theory: adjuncts(=modifier) vs complements
Np, AdjP, PP -
1. Adjacency: complement adjacent/right after V vs adjunct is not
e.g. I kiss you [intensely] vs X I kiss [intensely] you -> intensely is an adjunct
2. The one
3. Iteration
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