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Lecture

Lecture Two Notes

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School
University of Toronto Scarborough
Department
Linguistics
Course
LINA01H3
Professor
Chandan Narayan
Semester
Fall

Description
Linguistics Lecture 2 Thursday, September 23, 2010 Phonetics- (phone +etic: “having the property of sound”) • The scientific study of speech sounds o Articulatory Phonetics- production of speech sounds o Acoustic Phonetics- physical properties of speech sounds (not covered) o Auditory Phonetics- how sounds are heard and perceived (not covered) When you hear sound, air molecules are being pressed against your eardrums Speech and Segments How do we know that we “have” speech segments? - Evidence of ‘segments’ from speech errors o Slips of the tongue/SPOONERSISMS You have hissed my mystery lecture A lack of pies (a pack of lies) o Segments as planning units in speech production We hear things that are not there... - Acoustic signals do not come with segment boundaries o You cannot really isolate ‘b’ from ‘a’ or ‘n’ from ‘a’ in the continuous acoustic signal - The aticulatory gestures for different segments are typically produced with a significant amount of overlap - Overlap is called –co-articulation (when the sounds of letters blend i.e. “b-a-n) - English speakers hear segments when they are not necessarily evident in the physical signal We fail to hear things that are there... - Acoustically or articulatory speaking, no two utterances of the word “ban” are exactly identical - There are many different ways of saying “ban” Edward Sapir (1933) referred to these phenomena as “collective phonetic illusion” - We hear things that objectively are not there, we fail to notice elements... Phonetic Alphabet How do we standardize the way we describe speech sounds? English orthography Orthography- the actual writing system - Different letters may represent a single sound (to, too, two, through, threw, clue, shoe) - A single letter can represent many different sounds (dame, dad, father, call, village, many) - A combination of letters may represent a single sound (sh oot, Chef, nation, Thomas, either) - Some letters have no sound at all in certain words (regin, ghost, psychology, knot, debt) www.notesolution.com - Spelling reformers o George Bernard Shaw: ghoti ‘fish’ (gh: enough, o: women, ti: nation) Phonetic Alphabets Phonetic alphabets were developed by scholars interested in methods by which speech sounds could be described and symbolized Professor Henry Higgins had one **The IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) The most widely used system Divided into consonants and vowels Alveokar ridge- very important place of articulation Types of speech segments Consonants & Vowels • Consonants o Produced with either a complete closure or a narrowing of the vocal tract so there is some obstruction in the flow of air out of the mouth o Blocked air o Less sonorous o Either nasal or not nasal (i.e. cant make “m” soun
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