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Lecture 6

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Department
Linguistics
Course
LINA01H3
Professor
Chandan Narayan
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 6  Midterm: everything up until this lecture – intro, phonetics, phonology and morphology.  Need to know how to do phonetic transcriptions. Phonemes and allophones  Allophones are predictable variants you can predict when it will come up.  Complimentary distribution: in a context where you find one, you don‟t find the other.  Phoneme in least constricted context (?)  [x] and [y] and [x] allophones. One is the same as the allophone. Levels of representation  Phonemic representation is called broad, underlined  Surface (what comes out of our mouth). Allophone rules of English  Aspiration: voiceless stops. Syllable initially.  Memorize these 4 rules.***  Devoicing is more complex. Sonarance are liquids (?)  Example exam question: Give me the broad and narrow transcription for the word quick. o Broad: /kwik/ the i here is small capital i o Surface [kwik] the w has a small circle under, the i here is small capital i Morphology  Communicate our ideas in the form of words. When they get to the word level only the idea gets communicated. Only when you say dog can I get the image of a dog in my head.  Morphology is important in construction of cognitive system.  We intuitively know how to put parts together. Internal structure  Words in B are well-formed words of English. All you have done is made modifications of words in A. you added this particular „un‟ which has changed the meaning of column A. all the „un‟ in column B carry the same weight. What does „un‟ mean? Not. Not in all these words work the same way.  Prefix „un‟ can be extended. These are words we use everyday that are part of our lexicon. Some entries from www.urbandictionary.com  People might extend the meaning of „un‟ that are idiomatic.  Undesirable area means ass.  Within the past 30 years: uninvited.  Within the past 5 years: unfollow, unfriend. Some more examples of novel word-formation (Korean)  You can add the word surepta to change the word pride (calang) to proud. Simple vs. complex  2 or more morphemes are complex Roots vs. affixes  Root is major meaning bearing element in the word. Roots  Has to have a lexical category.  Lexicon: As a speaker of English or any language you have a set of phonological rules that get you from the phoneme to your allophones or surface structure (what comes out of your mouth). You next build up to morphology, which is mental lexicon. Lexicon means dictionary. In your head you have a dictionary of words, morphemes to be more precise. You have lexical category information (ex: dog is a noun, run is an action of running and that it is a verb, blue is an adjective.  Forming words: syntax. Affixes  Things that go before, after, inside.  It is a morpheme, which must be attached to a root.  Affixes need something to cling onto.  af- [root]  [af- [root]]-af  af-[af-[root]]-af 
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