Midterm: everything up until this lecture – intro, phonetics, phonology and
Need to know how to do phonetic transcriptions.
Phonemes and allophones
Allophones are predictable variants you can predict when it will come up.
Complimentary distribution: in a context where you find one, you don‟t find
Phoneme in least constricted context (?)
[x] and [y] and [x] allophones. One is the same as the allophone.
Levels of representation
Phonemic representation is called broad, underlined
Surface (what comes out of our mouth).
Allophone rules of English
Aspiration: voiceless stops. Syllable initially.
Memorize these 4 rules.***
Devoicing is more complex. Sonarance are liquids (?)
Example exam question: Give me the broad and narrow transcription for
the word quick.
o Broad: /kwik/ the i here is small capital i
o Surface [kwik] the w has a small circle under, the i here is small
Communicate our ideas in the form of words. When they get to the word
level only the idea gets communicated. Only when you say dog can I get
the image of a dog in my head.
Morphology is important in construction of cognitive system.
We intuitively know how to put parts together.
Words in B are well-formed words of English. All you have done is made
modifications of words in A. you added this particular „un‟ which has
changed the meaning of column A. all the „un‟ in column B carry the same
weight. What does „un‟ mean? Not. Not in all these words work the same
Prefix „un‟ can be extended. These are words we use everyday that are
part of our lexicon.
Some entries from www.urbandictionary.com
People might extend the meaning of „un‟ that are idiomatic.
Undesirable area means ass.
Within the past 30 years: uninvited.
Within the past 5 years: unfollow, unfriend.
Some more examples of novel word-formation (Korean)
You can add the word surepta to change the word pride (calang) to proud.
Simple vs. complex
2 or more morphemes are complex Roots vs. affixes
Root is major meaning bearing element in the word.
Has to have a lexical category.
Lexicon: As a speaker of English or any language you have a set of
phonological rules that get you from the phoneme to your allophones or
surface structure (what comes out of your mouth). You next build up to
morphology, which is mental lexicon. Lexicon means dictionary. In your
head you have a dictionary of words, morphemes to be more precise. You
have lexical category information (ex: dog is a noun, run is an action of
running and that it is a verb, blue is an adjective.
Forming words: syntax.
Things that go before, after, inside.
It is a morpheme, which must be attached to a root.
Affixes need something to cling onto.