The european roots of media and western society. Feudal society and the dominance of the church. Return to the classical teachings of ancient greece and rome, the emergence of humanism. Marked by the development of gutenburg"s printing press(1454) Printing presses disseminated ideas and spread literacy. New ideas from other regions could lead to social change and destabilization. Matin luther criticized the catholic church and advocated a more individual relationship with. Printing of the bible made it more accessible to the people, weakening the power of the. A conservative backlash that led to re-establishment of church and state as heads of power, censorship and state control of printing and publishing. This backlash often targeted publishers and distributors of humanist printed materials. Return to humanism and the application of scienti c approach. Key philosophers: locke, voltaire, rousseau, and adam smith. Public sphere where people meet to debate and talk about things related to media.