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Media CH.5.docx

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Media Studies
Ted Petit

Twinkle Arora MEDIA – CH.5 Rhetorical Analysis (Linguistics) - Rhetoric – an attempt to shape and influence its viewers attitudes - Media messages convey meaning, meanings that are never neutral – always persuading the audience differently - Definition of Rhetoric – refers to the ancient art of oratory, Language designed to have a persuasive or impressive effect on its audience, but often regarded as lacking in sincerity or meaningful - Sign – is something that invites someone to think of something other than itself - anything can function as a sign - when many people agree to the meaning of a sign we assume it has shared meaning making human communication possible - however, no sign can guarantee that everyone will interpret it the same way thus communication can be fragile - signs are significant because they are the fundamental building blocks of meaning hence communication - Fredinland Saussure – founder of modern linguistics, shifted the study from historical roots to the study of language - Fredinland Saussure coined the term semiology - semiology - which is defined as a science which studies the role of signs as part of social life, he argued all linguistic signs were a combination of signifier and signified - signifier – or sound image refers to material form of a sign perceived by the senses - signified – or mental concept is the idea evoked by the signifier - For Saussure, the linguistic sign has 2 defining traits: 1. Signs are arbitrary – meaning there is no natural correspondence, no relationship b.w signifier and signified 2. Linearity – being auditory, is unfolded soley in time – impossible to utter two distinct linguistics simultaneously - Arbitrary also means – meanings of existing signs can change such as Hot (warm to be presented as happening) and new signs can be made = no fixed or universal signifiers, the signified itself is arbitrary – dog and perro evoke different metal images in different cultures - Langue – to study the rules and conventions that organize a system - Parole – is to study specific use s to performers of language - Synchronic analysis –concerns the state of language, The study of the internal linkages of a system at a given point in time - Diachronic analysis or evoluntary linguistics – concerns the origins of languages and changes on sound or pronunciation over time (phonology) – these changes are found in parole – rules and conventions - Difference – if cant distinguish a word from another word we would be unable to communicate - Charles Sanders Perice – semiotics – formal doctrine of signs - semiotic program – triadic relation b/w sign, object and interpretant - according to Charles a sign or a represent-amen – is something which stands to somebody to something - the sign that creates something (being the object) in one’s mind is the interpretant Twinkle Arora - Charles classified signs into 3 categories – icons, indices and symbols - Iconic signs – operate according to the logic or similarity or likeness - diagrams, maps, pics - Indexical signs – are linked by cause or association to the objects they represent -e.g. since smoke indicates fire it functions as an indexical sign for fire - Symbols –linked to social convention or agreement, symbols are learnt signs - Roland Barthes –“French thinker” – signifying system - Signifying system – - Denotation – literal or explicit meanings of words - Connotation – operates as a myth, meanings can vary from culture to culture (what may the word symbolize) - Texts – according to Barry is a set of signs related to each other as their meanings all contribute to same set of effect s or function 1. Cluster - the way individual signs are associated with and dissociated from one another (CANDIES ADVERTISIMENT) 2. Form – play of all messages - an arousing and fulfillment of desires, to create and s
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