Chapter 10- Motivating employees (SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS ON EXAM) KNOW YOUR THEORIES
Motivation- What it is; Why it’s important
Some key theories experiments: The classical Theory, Scientific Management, Hawthorn Experiments
Motivation: The internal process that energies, directs and sustain our behaviour, he personal force that
causes us to behave in a particular way
Morale: A worker’s feelings towards his or her job and superiors and towards the firl itself
“Classical Theory” of Motivation
Workers are motivated only by money.
From your own experience is that true?
If there are jobs we won’t return to, because they are demeaning, because they are unpleasant, because
our supervisors were condescending.
Arrogant unkind: Classical Theory is wrong
Principles of scientific management (1911) book by Fredrick W Taylor
Taylor wanted to improve workers’ efficiency
If Classical Theory correct (workers motivated only by money): paying them more prompts them to
Break jobs into many simple, separate tasks
Time and motivation studies> job analysis>specialization> repetition
Remove inefficiencies, reduce waste, productivity should increase
Introduce repetition and specialization
Piece rate system: pay workers for their output
If on guy does something repeatedly her gets good at it and therefore specializing in it; the more you do
something the better you get.
Take a complex task break it down into tiny steps, get an employee to do the job over and over again
they’ll specialize in it and get paid at higher rates increase in short run
Problem with Scientific Theory:
Productivity does increase in short term
But- people are not machines!
Boring, repetitive jobs mead to alienation
Boring, repetitive jobs lead to disaffection
Boring, repetitive jobs lead to absenteeism
- It works for a while, but people are not machines, and if you ask someone to do something
really boring people will call in sick, get drunk/stoned Hawthorne Studies (1952)( Name of factory) (what what when where why; exam)
Research to determine: best environment
Experiments conducted at “Hawthorne” factory (Western Electric Co. Chicago, USA)
Turned lights up: What happened?
Turned lights down: what happened?
If you give people a work place environment that is pleasant and efficient maybe employees will enjoy
their work, show up regularly etc,.
People messed around with the level of lightening, maybe having lots of good light will put employees in
a positive state of mind; bright light is fall, and dark lights are winter.
Turned off most of the lights and went around did a survey how productive employees were in making
their product (light bulbs)
Did it again each day, each day made the lights brighter, by a little bit and each day productivity
increased a little bit.
If you d the opposite does the opposite happen- Newhall theory
Every time they dimed the lights productivity went up the darker the darker it got the more they were
People from Harvard uni didn’t understand why in perfect darkened they were really productive
Ask employees why this was and lady said... Because you people all the way from Boston and we didn’t
want to let you down; ladies felt important – Hawthorn Effect
Not going to be on exam: MBWA management by walking around
To become good manager instead of sitting in office walk around and talk to your employees and
Chapter 10: Text Book
Psychological contract: is the set of expectations held by an employee concerning what he or she will
contribute(contributions) to an organization and what the organization will provide to the employee
(inducement) in return.
Party perceives an inequity in the contract, that party may seek a change. The employee may want an
increase in pay or a bigger office. He or she may out forth less effort or look for a better job elsewhere.
The organization can also initiate change by training workers to improve their skills, transferring them to
new jobs or firing them.
Underpaid employees may perform below their capabilities or look for a new job.
Human relations- the interactions between employers and employees and their attitudes toward one
another-is a satisfied and motivated workforce.
The importance of Job Satisfaction and Morale
Job satisfaction is the degree of enjoyment that people derive from performing their jobs.
If people enjoy their work they are relatively satisfied; if they do not enjoy their work they are
Satisfied workers will have high morale-the overall attitude that employees have toward their
workplace. Morale reflects the degree to which they perceive that their needs are being met by their
jobs. Determined by factors; job satisfactions and satisfaction with such things as pay, benefits, so-
workers and promotion opportunities. When workers are enthusiastic and happy with their jobs, the organization benefits. Because they are
committed to their work and the organization, satisfied workers are likely to engage in negative
behaviour (complaining, deliberately slowing their work place and etc). More likely to stay with
organization and come to work every day.
Dissatisfied workers are likely to be absent die to minor illnesses, personal reasons, or a general
disinclination to go to work. Low morale may result in high turnover- the percentage of an
organization’s workforce that leaves and must be replaced. Some turnover is a natural and healthy way
to weed out low-performing workers in any organization. High levels of turnover have negative
consequences; numerous vacancies, disruption in production, decreased productivity and high
Motivation in the Workplace
Employee motivation is most important
Motivation is the set of forces that causes people to behave in certain ways. For example, while one
worker may be motivated to work hard to produce as much as possible, another may be motivated to
do just enough to get by
There are; Classical theory and scientific management, behaviour theory, and contemporary
Classical Theory and Scientific Management
Classical theory of motivation workers are motivated almost solely by money
If workers are motivated by money, Taylor reasoned, then paying them more would prompt them to
produce more. Meanwhile, the firm that analyzed jobs and found better ways to perform them would
be able to produce goods more cheaply, make higher profits, and thus pay and motivate-workers better
than its competitors.
Taylor’s approach is known as scientific management (Breaking down jobs into easily repeated
components, and devising more efficient tools and machines for performing them)
Behaviour Theory: The Hawthorne Studies
Came about by accident
Intent was to examine the relationship between changes in the physical environment wand worker
output, with an eye to increasing productivity.
The results of the experiment: increasing lighting levels improves productivity, but so did lower levels
of lighting levels. And against all exceptions, raising pay of workers failed to increase productivity.
They determined that almost any action on the part of management that made workers believe they
were receiving special attention cause worker productivity to rise Hawthorne effect
Theory X Theory Y
People are lazy People are energetic
People lack ambition People are ambitious
and dislike responsibility and seek reasonability
People are self- people can be selfless
centralized People want to
People resist change contribute to business
People are gullible and growth and change
not very bright People are intelligent Contemporary Motivation Theories
Human relations in motivating employees performance
The factors that cause focus and sustain workers’ behaviour most motivation theorists are concerned
with the ways in which management think about and treats employees
Major motivation Theories: human-resources model, the hierarchy of needs model, two-factory theory
expectancy theory, equity theory and goal-setting theory.
Human Resources Model: Theories X and Y
Douglas McGregor concluded that managers had radically different beliefs about how best to use the
human resources at a firm’s disposal. Classified beliefs into two categories; Theory X and Theory Y in the
Theory X tend to believe that people are naturally lazy and uncooperative and must therefore be
wither punished or rewarded to be made productive
Theory Y tend to believe that people are naturally energetic, growth-oriented, self-motivated and
interested in being productive.
Theory Y managers are more likely to have satisfied, motivated employees
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs model
Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy or human needs model proposed that people have a number of
different need that they attempt to satisfy in their work. Classified needs into 5 different categories:
General Examples: Organizational
2. Status 1. Challenging job
3. Friendship 2. Job title
4. Stability 3. Friends at work
5. Shelter 4. pensions plan
Security needs 5. salary
1. Physiological needs are necessary for survival; they include food, water, shelter, and sleep.
Businesses address these needs by providing both comfortable working environments and salaries
sufficient to buy food and shelter.
2. Security needs include the needs for stability and protection from the unknown. Many employees
thus offer pension plans and job security.
3. Social needs include the needs for friendship and companionship. M