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Chapter 10.docx

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Management (MGT)
Chris Bovaird

Chapter 10 Slides: Chapter 10- Motivating employees (SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS ON EXAM) KNOW YOUR THEORIES Principal points: Motivation- What it is; Why it’s important Some key theories experiments: The classical Theory, Scientific Management, Hawthorn Experiments Motivation: The internal process that energies, directs and sustain our behaviour, he personal force that causes us to behave in a particular way Morale: A worker’s feelings towards his or her job and superiors and towards the firl itself “Classical Theory” of Motivation Workers are motivated only by money. From your own experience is that true? If there are jobs we won’t return to, because they are demeaning, because they are unpleasant, because our supervisors were condescending. Arrogant unkind: Classical Theory is wrong Scientific Theory Principles of scientific management (1911) book by Fredrick W Taylor Taylor wanted to improve workers’ efficiency If Classical Theory correct (workers motivated only by money): paying them more prompts them to produce more. Scientific Management Break jobs into many simple, separate tasks Time and motivation studies> job analysis>specialization> repetition Remove inefficiencies, reduce waste, productivity should increase Introduce repetition and specialization Piece rate system: pay workers for their output If on guy does something repeatedly her gets good at it and therefore specializing in it; the more you do something the better you get. Take a complex task break it down into tiny steps, get an employee to do the job over and over again they’ll specialize in it and get paid at higher rates increase in short run Problem with Scientific Theory: Productivity does increase in short term But- people are not machines! Boring, repetitive jobs mead to alienation Boring, repetitive jobs lead to disaffection Boring, repetitive jobs lead to absenteeism - It works for a while, but people are not machines, and if you ask someone to do something really boring people will call in sick, get drunk/stoned Hawthorne Studies (1952)( Name of factory) (what what when where why; exam) Research to determine: best environment Experiments conducted at “Hawthorne” factory (Western Electric Co. Chicago, USA) Turned lights up: What happened? Turned lights down: what happened? If you give people a work place environment that is pleasant and efficient maybe employees will enjoy their work, show up regularly etc,. People messed around with the level of lightening, maybe having lots of good light will put employees in a positive state of mind; bright light is fall, and dark lights are winter. Turned off most of the lights and went around did a survey how productive employees were in making their product (light bulbs) Did it again each day, each day made the lights brighter, by a little bit and each day productivity increased a little bit. If you d the opposite does the opposite happen- Newhall theory Every time they dimed the lights productivity went up the darker the darker it got the more they were producing People from Harvard uni didn’t understand why in perfect darkened they were really productive Ask employees why this was and lady said... Because you people all the way from Boston and we didn’t want to let you down; ladies felt important – Hawthorn Effect Not going to be on exam: MBWA management by walking around To become good manager instead of sitting in office walk around and talk to your employees and motivate them Chapter 10: Text Book Psychological contract: is the set of expectations held by an employee concerning what he or she will contribute(contributions) to an organization and what the organization will provide to the employee (inducement) in return. Party perceives an inequity in the contract, that party may seek a change. The employee may want an increase in pay or a bigger office. He or she may out forth less effort or look for a better job elsewhere. The organization can also initiate change by training workers to improve their skills, transferring them to new jobs or firing them. Underpaid employees may perform below their capabilities or look for a new job. Human relations- the interactions between employers and employees and their attitudes toward one another-is a satisfied and motivated workforce. The importance of Job Satisfaction and Morale Job satisfaction is the degree of enjoyment that people derive from performing their jobs. If people enjoy their work they are relatively satisfied; if they do not enjoy their work they are relatively dissatisfied Satisfied workers will have high morale-the overall attitude that employees have toward their workplace. Morale reflects the degree to which they perceive that their needs are being met by their jobs. Determined by factors; job satisfactions and satisfaction with such things as pay, benefits, so- workers and promotion opportunities. When workers are enthusiastic and happy with their jobs, the organization benefits. Because they are committed to their work and the organization, satisfied workers are likely to engage in negative behaviour (complaining, deliberately slowing their work place and etc). More likely to stay with organization and come to work every day. Dissatisfied workers are likely to be absent die to minor illnesses, personal reasons, or a general disinclination to go to work. Low morale may result in high turnover- the percentage of an organization’s workforce that leaves and must be replaced. Some turnover is a natural and healthy way to weed out low-performing workers in any organization. High levels of turnover have negative consequences; numerous vacancies, disruption in production, decreased productivity and high retraining costs. Motivation in the Workplace Employee motivation is most important Motivation is the set of forces that causes people to behave in certain ways. For example, while one worker may be motivated to work hard to produce as much as possible, another may be motivated to do just enough to get by There are; Classical theory and scientific management, behaviour theory, and contemporary motivation theories. Classical Theory and Scientific Management Classical theory of motivation workers are motivated almost solely by money If workers are motivated by money, Taylor reasoned, then paying them more would prompt them to produce more. Meanwhile, the firm that analyzed jobs and found better ways to perform them would be able to produce goods more cheaply, make higher profits, and thus pay and motivate-workers better than its competitors. Taylor’s approach is known as scientific management (Breaking down jobs into easily repeated components, and devising more efficient tools and machines for performing them) Behaviour Theory: The Hawthorne Studies Came about by accident Intent was to examine the relationship between changes in the physical environment wand worker output, with an eye to increasing productivity. The results of the experiment: increasing lighting levels improves productivity, but so did lower levels of lighting levels. And against all exceptions, raising pay of workers failed to increase productivity. They determined that almost any action on the part of management that made workers believe they were receiving special attention cause worker productivity to rise Hawthorne effect Theory X Theory Y People are lazy People are energetic People lack ambition People are ambitious and dislike responsibility and seek reasonability People are self-  people can be selfless centralized People want to People resist change contribute to business People are gullible and growth and change not very bright People are intelligent Contemporary Motivation Theories Human relations in motivating employees performance The factors that cause focus and sustain workers’ behaviour most motivation theorists are concerned with the ways in which management think about and treats employees Major motivation Theories: human-resources model, the hierarchy of needs model, two-factory theory expectancy theory, equity theory and goal-setting theory. Human Resources Model: Theories X and Y Douglas McGregor concluded that managers had radically different beliefs about how best to use the human resources at a firm’s disposal. Classified beliefs into two categories; Theory X and Theory Y in the chart above. Theory X tend to believe that people are naturally lazy and uncooperative and must therefore be wither punished or rewarded to be made productive Theory Y tend to believe that people are naturally energetic, growth-oriented, self-motivated and interested in being productive. Theory Y managers are more likely to have satisfied, motivated employees Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs model Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy or human needs model proposed that people have a number of different need that they attempt to satisfy in their work. Classified needs into 5 different categories: Self-actualization needs General Examples: Organizational Esteem needs examples: 1. Self-fulfillment 2. Status 1. Challenging job Social needs 3. Friendship 2. Job title 4. Stability 3. Friends at work 5. Shelter 4. pensions plan Security needs 5. salary Physiological needs 1. Physiological needs are necessary for survival; they include food, water, shelter, and sleep. Businesses address these needs by providing both comfortable working environments and salaries sufficient to buy food and shelter. 2. Security needs include the needs for stability and protection from the unknown. Many employees thus offer pension plans and job security. 3. Social needs include the needs for friendship and companionship. M
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