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Lecture 1

MGHB02H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Stanford Prison Experiment, Stereotype Threat, Poverty Threshold

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Brian Connelley

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Personality, Values and Diversity
personality: set of psychological characteristics that influences the way and individual interacts with their
environment, consisting of two types:
broad & general traits: general tendencies of thinking, feeling, and behaving; comprehensive across
most personality traits; basic building blocks of personality
o 5 factor model:
neurotic vs. emotionally stable (anxious, emotional vs. poised, secure)
introverted vs. extraverted (quiet, deferential vs. outgoing, assertive)
traditional vs. open (prefers familiarity & customs vs. likes variety & reflecting)
surly vs. agreeable (insensitive, stubborn vs. friendly, empathic)
casual vs. conscientious (carefree, disorganized vs. motivated, dependable)
narrow traits: narrower set of behaviors; derived to predict a particular set of behaviors
o the types:
locus of control: set of eliefs aout hether oe’s ehaior is otrolled ail 
internal or external forces
type A personality: personality of aggressiveness, ambitiousness, competitiveness,
hostility, impatience, sense of time, urgency
self-esteem: the degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation
self-monitoring: the extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and
behave in social settings and relationships
positive & negative affectivity: propensity to view the world, including oneself and other
people, in a positive or negative light
proactive personality: stable personal deposition that reflects tendency to take personal
iitiatie aross rage of atiities ad situatios ad to effet positie hage i oe’s
general self-efficiency (GSE): refers to a idiidual’s elief i their ailit to perform
successfully in a variety of challenging situations
core self-evaluations: concept that consists of more specific traits that reflect the
evaluations people hold about themselves and their self-worth
selecting job-applicants: analyze through task performance, citizenship performance, counterproductive work
self vs peer reports which is better? both reports hold biases (overestimation and stereotype)
faking in selection: appliats a lie o persoalit tests, ut do’t do it as often as you think; difficult to find
fakers, but we fool ourselves thinking we can
values: basic conviction that a mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable
value system: ranking of a set of values
two types of values:
o terminal values: desirable end states
o instrumental values: preferred modes of behavior
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values at work: important determinants of job satisfaction and organizational commitment
o person-job fit: ath etee eploee’s professional interests and job demands
o person-organization fit: ath etee eploee’s alues ad orgaizatioal ulture
relevance of diversity:
o changing demographics
greater women participation in workforce
increase number of visible minorities
prevalence of cultural differences at work
aging workforce
o globalization
o legislation
surface vs. deep level diversity
o surface: age, gender, and diversity
o deep: attitudes toward work or how to accomplish a goal
diversity in organization; arguments for diversity
prejudice (affect), stereotyping (cognition) & discrimination (behavior)
stereotyping: tendency to generalize about people in a certain social category & ignore variations
among them
o stereotype threat: members of a social group feel they might be judged or treated according to
a stereotype and their behavior and/or performance will confirm the stereotype
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privilege: special right/advantage available to particular people, two systems:
o absolute deprivation: absence of requisites for survival
o relative deprivation: subjectively perceive self as unfairly disadvantaged compared to others
two types of prejudice:
o explicit prejudice: positive or negative feelings which you are aware
o implicit prejudice: feelings of which you are not aware can occur in well-intentioned individuals
tokenism: practice of making no more than a token effort or gesture as in offering opportunities to
minorities equal to those of the majority
discrimination: workplace manifestation
o discriminatory policies: unequal opportunity or performance rewards
o sexual harassment: unwanted sexual advances; sex-related conduct that creates an offensive
working environment
o intimidation: over threats/bullying
o mockery/insults: jokes or insults expressing negative stereotypes
o exclusion: left out from opportunities, socializing, informal mentoring
micro-aggressions (subtle discrimination): sutle ut offesie oet direted at iorit that’s
often unintentional or unconsciously reinforces a stereotype
reducing stereotyping, prejudice, & discrimination
generating diverse and equitable organizations
o recruitment
target diverse pool of applicants with variety of strategies
mirror targeted groups with similarly diverse recruiters and advertisements
o selection & promotion
fair and valid process
structured interview
ignorance hypothesis: negative stereotypes and prejudice are due to sheer ignorance
goals hypothesis: stereotyping, prejudice, and prejudicing fulfills goals
Social Influence and Socialization
presence of others may improve or impede performances:
presence of others -> psychological arousal -> dominant responses (unmastered task) -> improved
performance (on well-mastered or simple tasks, dominant response is right) or impaired performance
(on difficult or complex tasks, dominant response is wrong)
Lucifer effect (Stanford Prison Experiment): raises questions on how possible it is for ordinary people to
become evil
prison observation shows how prisons dehumanizes people, turning them into objects & giving feeling
of hopelessness
with guards, it was realized how ordinary people can transform to evil
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