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lec04.docx

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Department
Neuroscience
Course
NROC61H3
Professor
Rutsuko Ito
Semester
Fall

Description
lec04 instrumental vs pavlovian conditioning 1. pavlov a. associations formed between stimuli, and between stimulus and response 2. instrumental conditioning influenced by other types of conditioning 3. schedules of reinforcement 4. instrumental = operant conditioning a. focus on the action that gets you to the outcome i. action-outcome learning 5. pavlovian a. action doesnt matter b. gets reward anyways instrumental or classical conditioning? 1. instrumental 2. pavlovian 3. instrumental 4. pavlovian 5. instrumental 6. instrumental experimental evidence of instrumental conditioning 1. grindley a. guinea pigs trained to face left or right i. left initial training ii. right reversal training b. prediction i. head turn under pavlovian association  new learning would not take place ii. head turn under instrumental conditioning  new learning could take place 1. how? why? important terms 1. quality of the outcome a. appetitive - pleasant outcome b. aversive - unpleasant outcome 2. operant behavior and outcome a. positive contingency -- response causes stimulus to appear b. negative contingency -- response causes stimulus to disappear or eliminates it 3. reinforcement a. a situation in which a relation between response and outcome increases the probability of response occurring reinforcement and punishment 1. positive reinforcement  response produces pleasant stimulus 2. negative reinforcement  response takes away unpleasant stimulus 3. positive punishment  response produces unpleasant stimulus 4. negative punishment  response takes away pleasant stimulus positive or negative 1. punishment 2. negative 3. negative 4. punishment 5. negative method of measuring instrumental action 1. maze learning a. discrete trial procedures i. trial in which they learn something ii. experimenter ends trial and restarts another trial 1. in control of when trial starts and ends 2. free operant paradigms a. unlimited capacity to perform a certain response i. e.g. lever pressing ii. free action to capture important characteristics of behavior in real world responses 1. in control of own behavior runway maze 1. straight alley maze a. reward at the end of the alley b. goal box associated with reward c. learn to associate the end with the goal d. measure the motivation to run for reward as indication of operant conditioning e. leave intertrial interval -- a break T maze 2. starting point at the base of the T 3. choice between two goal boxes at the ends of the top of the T 4. tendency to choose alternate arm (exploratory nature, explore novel environment) a. can measure this with delayed non-matching place procedure b. received reward from one arm in phase 1, but chooses the second arm in phase 2 5. delayed matching to place procedure a. need to engagepre-frontal cortex responsible for inhibition of behavior (natural tendency to alternate) 8-arm radial maze 1. missed beginning explanation of slide 13 2. assign 4 arms with reward 3. assign 4 arms without reward 4. free exploration a. measure which arms they enter b. measure which order they enter the arms 5. mistake of re-entering an arm with reward already entered previously a. working memory error 6. mistake of re-entering a non rewarded arm a. reference memory error free operant procedures 1. types of operant responses a. lever press b. chain pull c. nose poke d. peck 2. dependent variable a. response rate b. total number of responses c. latency to respond how do you get a rat to press a lever? 1. missed slide 16 2. magazine training 3. shaping 4. what matters is not the technique, but the outcome a. as long as they start consistently lever pressing, you are successful b. can simply smear glucose on the lever, and rat will discover by chance that lever pressing  reward superstitious behavior 1. prone to developing superstitious behaviors a. i.e. accidental pairing of certain behaviors with reward i. e.g. pidgin receives reward after it looks over its left shoulder, thinks looking over left shoulder  reward ii. humans do this too  knock on wood for luck action and habits 2. operant conditioning a. acquisition of causal relation between action (response) and outcome (reinforcer) 3. however, early researchers believed that associations are formed instead of stimulus-response a. why? thorndike 1. first serious analysis of instrumental conditioning a. against the idea that animals had intelligence b. posited that animals instead are governed by habit  regulated by operant conditioning i. behavior changes because of its consequences  the law of effect early studies and S-R learning 2. missed slide 22 R-O or S-R learning? 3. response outcome (RO) used interchangeably with action outcome 4. to test the validity of the theories by manipulating the outcome a. devaluing the outcome, what happens to learning? i. according to RO 1. should see impairment in learning ii. according to SR 1. changing outcome has no outcome at all a. why? reinforcer devaluation 1. selective reduction in lever press a. evidence for RO learning i. because changing value of one outcome, lead to consequent decrease in response for that specific outcome (but not the other one) manipulating the effect of length of training 2. 4 groups a. 2 groups received 2 sessions of 50 rewards b. 2 groups received 10 sessions of 50 rewards 3. all groups lever trained for food aversion training as we
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