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NROC64 : Lec 4 : Auditory and Vestibular Systems (nearly word-for-word what was said in lecture)

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NROC64Lec 4Auditory and Vestibular SystemsSlide 6SoundoAudible variations in air pressure water pressure other mediumsoTypically have some volume w mocs and there are certain regions in the volume where the mocs are just packed denser together and areas where they are less densethis travels thru the volumeoQuantify air pressureDiagramoLongitudinal waveswaves dont move much they move back and forth but stay roughly on same spotits just the density that actually travels its just energy itself travelling in a mediumoAlso possible that these mocs do travelwindoCyclefrom max pressure to min pressure and then to max pressure again it doesnt matter which point you start cycle would be the end of the same region that you started at oFrequencycycles secondexpressed in HzHigher freqmore cycles win same space it doesnt mean it travels more quickly it travels at same speed of sound in air medium around 300 msec but theres just more cyclesoEnergy of sound wave depends on the amplitude of waveSlide 7pitch and loudness are perceptual aspects of frequency and sound NRGpitchhow we perceive frequencies 20 Hz20000 Hzpast age 15 cant perceive frequencies greater than 20000 HzDiagramoFrequencies that we can hear we hear frequencies according to all sorts of processes that arent based on physics ex 2 tones that are separated by an octave sound similar higher tone octave has the double frequencywhy this is is not based directly on physicsoIt has to do with certain ways that we process frequencies and cultural aspectsoPitch is more complicated than just frequencies it has PERCEPTUAL aspects to itoLoudnessperceptual aspect of intensityoGraph xaxisdiff frequencies and yaxisNRG of the tones dBoLog scales curves represent where perception is roughly equaloRed curveatypical absolute thresholdpoint at which you start to perceive sound if you go below this point tone becomes inaudibleoMeans that at low freq like 20 Hz has to have quite a bit of intensity sound pressure NRG in order to be audible frequencies of 3000 Hz for ex can have much lower sound NRG leveloSubjectively if you ask ppl it appears to be at the same loudness even though its not and it continues at sounds that are louder than the absolute thresholdoIf louder can still ask ppl to equate diff tones of frequency and ask them to match them in loudness subjectively adjust them so that they appear to be the sameget curves of diagramFor example can have a curve where every single tone is adjusted to a sound level of 60 out of 100 arbitraryget regular patterns curvy and reflects absolute threshold suggests it has something to do w physiology and anatomy of inner ear which happens to hear best at this freq
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