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Lecture 2

Week 2 Notes

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William Seager

Philosophy Lecture Week 2 Notes Pgs. 19-34 Inductive and Deductive Arguments Deductive Validity Conclusion cant say anything that wasnt already contained in the premises Nondeductive arguments are riskier - but you gainyou can reach true conlclusions that go beyond premises - risk is you may reach false conclusions from true premises Nondeductive- go beyond premises and make conclusions in a strong deductive nondeductive inference the premises make the conclusion plausible Two types of non-deductive inference - inductive (particular to general) - abductive (general to particular) Inductive Involves taking a description of some sample and extending that description to items outside the sample E.g. 60% of the county voters called are Democrats Approx. 60% of the county are for Democrats ^ goes beyond what the premiss asserts Two factors that affect how strong or weak arguments are 1. Sample size bigger the better 2. representatives or unbiasedness -- random is better BUT doesnt guarantee it wont be biased
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