Globalization, universal values, new global vulnerabilities, etc: critical eye on globalization > states proliferate, resistance to r2p. Discourse analysis: discourse as structure, discourse as power. Interests dominant factor in analysis of state (realism) Threats are not objective exogenous objects or phenomena. Threats are result of interpretation: ex: nukes become a threat only when so perceived. Critical social [critical] constructivism understands interests as constructed in relation to (internal factors) identity. Naturalized power relations need to be un-naturalized. People, like states, act on the basis of meanings that things have for them. Terrorist is not an objective term; a terrorist is discursively constructed as such. British, george washington was a terrorist so it is subjective. Ira was terrorists to uk, patriotic nationalist to some irish. (was in control by britain) V arab militants as rational beings pursuing tactics . Certain elites, or powerful institutional actors, play privileged roles in the (re) production of discursive constructions.