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Political Science
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M.Hoffmann- Universityof Toronto

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Week#6 Modern Conflict POLB81 Slide 2 :  The report is an instance of collective security because they are trying to get all nations to work together to secure a particular region.  Identifying aggressors  Collective security: the notion that everybody gets together to stop an aggressor, an adaptation because its usually for inter-state conflict ;  Now were adapting it to non-state violence; Hezbelloa is not a state with territory;  Linkage of Conflicts; status quo: really has to do with civil war going in Syria, Hezbolla in Lebanon, which has a real complex relationship with this place.  You cant just deal with Hezbolla independently, there are ramifications for other conflicts  What is going to happen to the ASAD regime, when it falls?  A good of example of interstate and transnational conflicts: key defining feature of modern conflict  Intra-state: within the states, like civil wars  Transnational conflict: goes beyond boarders of a nation  Difference interstate: state actors, but transnational deals with non state actors  Hezbolla : acts of terrorism , however they are more complex , they run all these different social programs ;  Ramifications of identifying someone as a terrorist , Lebanon , What EU would do in terms of its own security ,  Defining Terrorism: fluid relationships ( actors are not always in conflict, or they maybe in conflict up-down lead)  Assymetric : two things that don’t look the same , a lot of thse conflicts we talk about is asymmetric conflicts ( powerful groups against the weak) Slide 3  Interstate : Traditional  Tools to deal with this : WAR(realist), collective security(liberal) , diplomacy(liberal), balance of power(realist) Deterence(Realist), Arms control(  Intrastate is war between states (type of actor involved)  Do such tools work well , to solve such a problem ?  Collective security is a tough one or would have to be significantly adopted. Classic collective security, has there eve been : one case history where collective security and that was GULF WAR 1991. UN WAS set up to do this : but if one of them attacks another country , there is no collective security.  The west is infintley more powerful than terrorist organizations , but BOP doesn’t helpt to manage the conflict ;  Deterrence : the key logic is that you threaten a large response to attack , be credible in your threat ; if you attack me .. I will respond with overwhelming force. How can you calculate deterrence , really heavily identifying an aggressor , heavily tied to territory. Tied to the idea that you can punish the correct actor.  Transnational and Intrastate and transnationalism : Modern ( non-state actors or them fighting with each other ) Slide 8  Mass genoicide and politicide : this is what modern conflict , this is the kind of conflicts the world is facing ; Were not worried about intrastate , its more  Terrorism and Genocide  Defining terrorism : non-state actors , with political violence, usually but not always at directed at non-combattants  Geared towards a larger audience ( to instill fear in broader population) ,  Causes of Terrorism : Terrorism has been around since theres been states , early 19 th century Week#6 Modern Conflict POLB81  Whats the difference between terrorism and freedom-fightning , could say acts used , but it is difficult to say  Alienation and Ideology  Look at waves of terrorist activity , ( not a new problem)  Anarchists in 19 century , who felt alienated came from oppression by authoritarian systems
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