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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Judith Teichman

POLC91 Oct 10, 2012 Lecture 5 Independence and the Struggle for Order and Progress -Chavez got re-elected in Venezuela Independence from Spain -led by group of ppl known as the criollos (creoles); they were born in the Americas but were of Spanish descent -their opponents were the ppl known as the peninsulares; the Spanish ppl that were sent over by the king to control and look after the import/export activities -the criollos were unhappy for a number of reasons 1-peninsulare controlled import/export trade; all trade had to occur with Spain, but b/c of economic weakness of Spain, could not provide LA with all the goods that were needed - the Criollos wanted free trade; wanted to get rid of Spanish mercantilism 2- peninsulare control of the colonial gov’t; Spanish king appointed nobles that were loyal to him, so the criollos did not have access to positions of power, and therefore could not access the wealth that came along with these positions 3- were also influenced by the ideas of liberty and freedom from the French and American revolutions; but they made very selective use of these ideas Independence -Napoleans’ invasion of Spain -1808- Spanish crown goes to Napoleon, who then gave it to his brother (Joseph), and btwn 1808 and 1814 Napoleans brother was the king of Spain and couldn’t control anything really, was a period in which LA controlled itself b/c the King really had no control over things -during this time the LA countries initiate the struggle for freedom from Spain; was initiated by the Criollos, was an elite struggle -this struggle went on for a long time, in most countries 10-15 years, which is a pretty long time to struggle for independence -during this time there was army and military men moving throughout the country -The Liberators: Simon Bolivar; Known as the liberator of the north -in many ways he was not that progressive; when he started off was not interested in abolishing slavery, but this did become one of his causes, and also the distribution of land for soldiers who fight for independence -once he took power, not everyone got the vote, only a small percentage of the pop’n; had to be literate and have property qualifications, so was really about criollos getting control from the Spanish -Jose de San Martin; put together army in 1810, (Chile, Peru) was coming from the South -Martin and Boliver met somewhere in the middle of LA geographically; Martin wanted it to be a monarchy Boliver wanted republics, neither thought should be a democracy, though it was too ignorant and backward to be able to handle democracy and both advocated against any movement toward democracy -met in 1822 and discussed differences; Martin gave in and went off to Spain, Boliver went out and created republics -indepence; what did it accomplish? -the abolition of slavery was now on the agenda -got rid of the inquisition -got rid of the legal discrimination based on race What stayed the same? -change in the ppl that occupied power -concentration in wealth, particularly land ownership -peninsulares left, but the criollos took over land ownership -ppl that emerged in control at the end of 1800’s were a small number of people, and they became known as the LA oligarchy (rule by the few) -despite that fact that there were elections and the trapping of democracy, the authoritarian/top down nature of politics remained intact The Age of Violence and Caudillo Rule (1820-1850/70) -period of constant political upheaval/instability, constant fighting and civil war -caudillo was a certain type of LA leade; this role emerged early in history, and it has had an imp’t legacy in shaping the way LA politics works -when Boliver retired and went back to Spain he left his lieutenants in charge, and these ppl came to dominate politics -examples of these ppl: -Jose Gasper, Rodriguez de Francia of Paraguay -Jose Manel de Rosa of Argentina -Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna of Mexico -independence strengthened the control/power of these large land owners and military leaders -they were the ones that take over as political leaders once independence was achieved, so whole thing was very militarized; they have huge armies that they used to fight the Spanish -these caudillo leaders fought each other and contributed of the chaos of the 19C Sources of Violent Conflict -variability’s btwn countries as to why they were fighting and over what Liberals -anti-clerical (church); wanted to reduce the power of the church, and reduce the large amount of land that they owned -federalist; did not support centralized power in the capital but wanted to have dispersed power in the provinces -republican; not monarchies -pro free trade; didn’t want tariffs and protectionist measures, or impediments of why they could trade with Conservatives -pro catholic church ; didn’t want to decrease its power -centralized authority -pro monarchy -these 2 groups were busy fighting each other until 1870 and by the time those who were liberal pretty much triumphed every where -some argue that the diff’s btwn these 2 groups was not that great -these ideas that were among the criollos or upper class; those who were living in small towns or poverty were not really concerned with these ideas, but they were recruited to fight in these wars Other Sources of Conflict Regional -caudillos retained their armies, usually in remote areas, which meant that there would be turf wars, Intellectuals (criollos) vs. the Masses -criollos had disdain for darker skinned/mixed blood pop’n, and though that they couldnt be part of modernization/development and they feared the masses -the masses understood what the intellectuals thought about them and this made them angry and easy to recruit for wars Landowners vs. peasants/slaves -ongoing struggle of the poor to have greater access to land -into these situations as and sources of conflict emerges the caudillo leaders -was easy to recruit ppl to fight other groups of ppl for various types of wars Caudillismo -authority based on personal qualities that fits into the void that is there b/c the Spanish monarchy is no longer there -when the Spanish left no one was controlling the new republics, so there leaders moved in and took control, usually starting with regions and take control in a context in which there are conditions with fertile ground for conflict -groups of ppl were easily mobilized and recruited into armies -Caudillismo is a form of authority which is arbitrary and rests of presumed personal qualities -not guided by any rule of law -they are not accountable -based on an exchange relationship ; provides an opportunity for upward mobility, income *-left a legacy which imbued a personalistic character into leadership and political struggles – predisposed giving a personal charter to political authority and leadership *-also left a legacy of involvement for material support – legacy of exchanging political support for material gain -these became common practices, to such an extent that the division btwn ind leader and state became blurred; leaders would say things like “I am the state” -these are the informal aspects; why has caudillismo been so resistant? The New Political Institutional Arrangements -Republican -presidential model that is modeled after the US -have a president, congress, senate, house of deputies, judiciary, etc. – on paper looks a lot like US system -all of this is guaranteed by constitutions; president has decree powers, so could use powers to over-ride congress (elected powers) -heavy literacy and property qualifications on voting -electoral fraud ; in the 80’s this did happen on a large scale -presidents of republics replaced the king and the viceroy, and had the discretionary power that the king had on colonial rule -were very authoritarian or in some cases dictatorial What conditions produced caudillismo? Racial intermingling and stratification; they were highly stratified hierarchical societies, with whiter at the top and darker skinned ppl at the bottom –
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