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lecture 2

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science

Lecture 2 notes POLC97H3 Prof. Masri January 17, 2013 - Everyone is late today lol - Islamic caliphate, started in Mecca - Islam crystallized some of the Arab tribes and they formed a state, which was young and very vibrant, was able to expand, and become an empire, later to expand geographically - At the height of the expansion was from India, some point china, all the way to Spain in the west, the largest empire with oil, not always united - Ruled by a number of dynasties - The head of the empire, the state, a caliph (sultan), his control has a religious significance, seen as the heir of the prophet, of the faithful - The ottoman empire was the last dynasty to rule and Islamic empire - A short movie about the ottoman empire, about the demise and also about the lives and experiences of people of different kinds (3 parts) - o The diversity that was a strength in one era was weakness in another, amid the carnage of WW1 o They were one of many of nomadic tribes, long been territory of the Byzantines o Osman, became the head of a group of warriors, sounded like “ottoman” and the name stuck o Location played a role in early ottoman success, important trade routes, tributes, early leadership structure, rewarded the most capable o They would eventually control the middle east, their new territory “the Balkans” which means “forested plains” o Since the crusades, both faiths had fought for control, the ottomans largely were different o Ruling with a light touch, peace in new lands let them do more, intermingling of faith o Sonic presets, C + J had received god’s revelations, respect from Islam o The ottoman system was flexible in its dynamism, recruitment channels to all, not just aristocrats o Ethnic identify and family background didn’t matter, only Muslim, spoke Turkish o Modern Europe’s first modern standard army, the janissary, o 1453 in Istanbul, Constantinople, changed the ottoman from a political system to a powerful empire, an enormous conquest that resonates around the Muslim world o Ottoman victory was the triumph of strange - o Can we practically profit and benefit from these things? o Absorbed a new population as they took over the middle east, Mecca and medina o The sultans became the defenders of the Islamic state o Suleiman the great, the empire turned away from new lands, into governing, autonomy via taxes o An ottoman was living better than an average European o Christians and Jews paid a special taxes, certain clothes, only certain jobs o No empire lasts forever o 17/1800s, new technologies, ottomans losing ground in the Balkans, aware that European powers were growing, cheap goods drove craftsman out of work, internal crisis o Nationalist movements pledged loyalties to each other not to the sultan, declaration of separate states (Greeks, Serbians, etc), European powers goaded them on o Muslims began traveling south, ottomans began a reform effort, new laws, banned turbans in favor of a fez, inspired fear than respect o Ottoman weakness took many forms, reforms were expensive o Ottoman debt administration, gave creditors in Europe control, more radical reforms o Some officers forced the sultan to abdicate, official called the young Turks - o The ottomans allied themselves with Germany in WW1 o Britain allied with Russia o Ethnic groups were slaughtered (Armenians) o 1915, world war raged on, allied nations planned to carve up the ottoman empire, Constantinople agreement o Mustapha kamal, forced invader out, declared turkey an new state o Many new states from old empire o Soviets took over Balkans, did what they could to erase ottoman legacy th o Ancient differences and new hatred, 19/20 centuries, enhanced by political concerns Egypt (19 -20 centuries) - First area we’ll lo0k at is Egypt - In a way, separate than the ottoman empire, at the beginning was occupied by the French, as a result of intervention, they had to leave - At the time, the commander, Mohammed ali, Albanian, took control of Egypt and ruled independently - Focused on modernization and economic development, trying to build a modern state - Focused on the development of the Suez canal (transport), the existence of the Nile and fertility of the Nile delta (producer of cotton), England wanted to take over that territory and secure travel to India - England invaded in 1881, kept same ruler, control was in their hands, continued until 1952, ruler was king, foreign policy and economy were dictated by the British - Impact of capitalism shown, it needed markets and raw materials, important for British to control these colonies - As a result we can see some asymmetrical development, 1% of the budget was invested into education Mandate system (Syria, Iraq, Jordan, and Palestine) - In the area of Iraq Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine, there was an agreement to divide the ottoman empire amongst themselves, Sykes-picot agreement, exposed in 1917, these areas still went to control of the French and British - 1920’s, where the idea of nationalistic determination was more and more popular - League of nations, precursor to the UN, created mandates (rules for good governa
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