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Lecture 3

PSYA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Sigmund Freud, Behaviorism, Eye Tracking

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Steve Joordens

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Chapter 1, Lecture 3
Science and Therapy: Psychology’s Recent Past
Continuation from Chapter 1, Lecture 2
Sigmund Freud
Not a scientist, but a medical doctor (physiologist)
He idealized the medical model
Believing that every sickness has symptoms and can be cured with medicine, because it
is a virus
He introduced this idea to the world started focusing on mental illness and believed
there was an underlying cause
Believed everything was about sex and aggression due to biological urges, most of which
we can satisfy quite easily
Ex. being cold take off a layer
Idealized cocaine
Excellent observer of human behaviour abnormal human behaviour
Interested in what caused someone to have disordered thinking
Scientific psychologists hated him because of lack of testable theories
He had this notion of unconscious things playing out in little things that people did he could
see things in your behaviour that implied a deeper unconscious state
Made him extremely popular with the general population
Redefined psychology overnight
The European Reaction
Two things happened in direct response to Freud
The first one was almost a retreat to Weber and Fechner
Focusing on primitive sensory experiences staying scientific
Gestalt Psychology: Trying to understand the laws underlying our amazing ability to acquire and
maintain stable percepts in a noisy world
Gestalt (roughly translated): the whole is greater than the sum of its parts
Humanistic Psychology: created in response to Freuds idea of repressed sex and aggression
focusing on the positives of humanity empathy, creativity, etc
Challenge how many different uses of an object a person could come up with
measuring creativity
The North American Reaction
The era of behaviourism the idea was to focus on behaviour (typically using animals)
Seeing how animals react to certain stimuli sound, light, electrical impulse (all
Shunned all discussion of any psychological concept that could not be directly and objectively
measured and/or manipulated
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