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Lecture 21

PSYA02H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 21: Thalamus, Executive Functions, Antipsychotic


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
Dwayne Pare
Lecture
21

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PSYA02 – Lecture 21 – Schizophrenia
Schizophrenic Disorders:
A group of psychological disorder involving distortions of
though, perception and motion; bizarre behavior and
social withdrawal
Means “split mind” but doesn’t involve
multiple personalities
Effects about 1% of people in Canada
Age of Onset & Hospitalization:
Schizophrenia Disorders:
More people are institutionalized with schizophrenia than any other disorder
oAbout 1% of the population suffers from schizophrenia
oThe onset tends to be in late adolescence or early adulthood
oTends to strike men earlier and more severely, though both sexes are
equally vulnerable
oHigher incidence in lower socioeconomic groups and for people who
are single, separated or divorced rather than married
Symptoms of Schizophrenia:
Positive Symptoms:
oMore active symptoms that reflect an excess or distortion of normal
thinking or behavior
oHallucinations (typically auditory)
oDelusions of Persecution, Control and Grandeur
Negative symptoms:
oRefers to things that have bben removed
oThere are deficits or losses in emotion, speech, energy level, social
activity and even basic drives such as hunger
Disorganized symptoms:
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oInclude disorganized speech, disorganize behavior, and inaapropraite
emotion
o“word salad” no connections between the spoken words, no
meaning behind the sentences spoken
Types of Schizophrenia:
Catatonic:
oExtreme movement symptoms ranging from excessive motor activity
to posturing (immobility for long periods)
Residual:
oThere has been a past schizophrenic episode, but presently only
some negative symptoms and no positive symptoms (hallucinations
and delusions)
Paranoid:
oOrganized cognition and emotion, but with hallucinations and
delusions that are usually concerned with persecution
Disorganized:
oDisorganized speech, behavior or inappropriate emotion
Undifferentiated:
oMixed bag category – symptoms fit the criteria of more than one of the
above three types or none of them
Technical Definition:
According to DSM-IV, schizophrenia is defined a the presence, most of the
time during a one-month period, of at least two of the following symptoms:
oHallucinations
oDelusions
oDisorganized speech
oDisorganized or catatonic behavior
oAny negative symptoms (loss of emotion)
Type I and Type II:
Type 1 schizophrenia – characterized by positive symptoms
oAcute, as the person functioned normally before the disorder strikes
and has better chances of recovery
oUsually be alleviated with drugs
Type 2 schizophrenia – characterized by negative symptoms
oTend to stem from more permanent brain abnormalities
Causes of Schizophrenia:
Concordance rate – about 50%
Hypothesis 1: prenatal viral infections
oPeople are at increased risk if there was a flu epidemic during the
middle of their fetal development
oIn the northern hemisphere, people born in the winter/spring months,
January through April, following the fall/winter flu season are more at
risk than people born in other months of the year
oGenetic Links:
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