PSYA02H3 Lecture Notes - Muscular Development, Dazed, Object Permanence

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Published on 12 Oct 2012
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Chapter 12: Lifespan Development
- cross-sectional study: individuals of different ages are simultaneously compared with respect to
some test/observation
- longitudinal study: compares observations of the same individuals at different times of their
lives
Parental Development
- prenatal period: nine months between conception and birth
o has THREE stages
Stages of Prenatal Development
- zygote stage: the zygote (single new cell) that is formed at conception divides many times, and
the internal organs begin to form
o from birth two weeks
o many layers one for the skin, hair, nervous system, and sensory organs
o ending: third layer appears that develops into muscles
- embryonic stage: zygote is transferred into an embryo and development occurs at an incredibly
rapid pace
o 2 weeks 8 weeks
o 4 weeks heart starts to beat, brain/spinal cord starts to function
o teratogens: substances, agents, events that can cause birth defects
o sex is determined male gives a Y = develop gonads
male gives an X develops ovaries
- GONADS are developed first if it’s an X chemical signal is sent to change gonads to ovaries
- androgens: primary class of sex hormone
o ex/ most important: TESTEOSTERONE
o develop the male sex organs
- fetal stage: begins with appearance of bone cells and ends with birth
o 2 months 7 months
o 7 months = fetus can be born pre-maturely which can be negative to their health
o on avg 3.5 kg and 50cm long
Threats to Normal Parental Development
- most important to fetus health? mother’s diet
- smoking mother? carbon monoxide of cigarette takes away from fetus’ oxygen supply
- some teratogens are more difficult to avoid
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Physical and Perceptual Development in Infancy and Childhood
Motor Development
- maturation: any relatively stable change in thought, behaviour, or physical growth that is due to
the aging process and not to experience
- AT BIRTH infants most important movements are reflexes
- development of motor skills?
o 1) maturation of child’s nervous systems
o 2) practice
- amount of growth is associated with IQ in later life
- more complex movements? more complex developments of nervous systems
Perceptual Development
- voice recording of mother = increased fetus’ heart rate
- voice recording of stranger = heart rate remained neutral
- a child’s senses are already functioning at birth
o touch, auditory, visual
- taste buds? YES! indicate preference by facial expression
- preference/discrimination develop in utero via exposure to mother’s voice
- Form Perception
o 1 month: baby doesn’t look at the inside of a figure but look at the corners/edges
o 2 months: baby scans across the border to investigate the interior of a figure
o at these ages ^ the babies do not perceive complete shapes
o 3 months: babies show clear signs of pattern recognition
prefer to look at stimuli that resemble the human face
o 4/5 months: they can discriminate between even very similar faces
- Distance Perception
o 6 months: placed in front of a high object able to perceive distance between ground
and height of object so they DO NOT try to climb it
o retinal disparity key for depth
o crossed-eye? affects stereopsis. retina in both eyes perceive the same information
o most at risk 3.5 months after birth
- Critical and Sensitive Periods in Perceptual Development
o critical period: a specific time during which certain experience must occur for normal
development to occur
ex/ many cognitive abilities, behavioural, or perceptual abilities are subject to
critical periods
ex/ children don’t have opportunity in 1st 2 years to interact with others,
cognitive abilities are impaired
o sensitive period: period of time during which certain experiences have more of an
effect on development than they would have if they occurred at another time
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ex/ learning a second language more easily learned in childhood, more
difficult in later life if learned in later life, almost always will have an accent
Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood
The Importance of A Responsive Environment
- cognitive development = process by which infants get to know things about themselves and
their world
- CASE STUDY
o orphan for 3 years, adopted at 3, described as “living hell” due to inability to focus on
any behaviour
emotional maturity was VERY minimal
o she was diagnosed with autism, attention deficit disorder, and hyperactivity
- at KEY times the brain requires the stimulation that normal childhood provides for development
The Work of Jean Piaget
- children engaged in behaviour typical to their age
- a child should complete a period prior to entering the next period
- operation: a logical or mathematical rule that transforms an object or concept into something
else
- children develop SCHEMA’s or mental framework that organizes information about a
person/place/thing MENTAL SNAPSHOT
- “grasping shcema” grasping her toy. learns to grasp other objects too turns in to “picking-
up schema”
- assimilation: process by which new information is incorporated into existing schemata
o ex/ adult = tall drive cars, children = short, ride bikes
when the child meets new children and new adults they’ll be assimilated into
this category
- accommodation: process by which existing schemata are changed by new experiences
ex/ if a child sees a short adult riding a bike he must accommodate this new
information into his existing one and
they realize that some adults are short LIKE children
- Piaget’s Four Periods of Cognitive Development
- equilibration: process within Piaget’s theory that reorganizes schema as the child gains age
1) The Sensorimotor Period
a. an orderly progression of increasingly complex cognitive developments such as
reflexes, permanence, imitation, and symbolic thinking
b. first 2 years of life
c. object permanence: the realization that objects do not cease to exist when they’re
out of sight
i. until 6 months children lose interest in objects that are no longer in sight
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Document Summary

Chapter 12: lifespan development cross-sectional study: individuals of different ages are simultaneously compared with respect to some test/observation longitudinal study: compares observations of the same individuals at different times of their lives. Prenatal period: nine months between conception and birth: has three stages. Carbon monoxide of cigarette takes away from fetus" oxygen supply some teratogens are more difficult to avoid. Physical and perceptual development in infancy and childhood. Maturation: any relatively stable change in thought, behaviour, or physical growth that is due to the aging process and not to experience. At birth infants most important movements are reflexes. Development of motor skills: 1) maturation of child"s nervous systems, 2) practice amount of growth is associated with iq in later life. Preference/discrimination develop in utero via exposure to mother"s voice. Prefer to look at stimuli that resemble the human face: 4/5 months: they can discriminate between even very similar faces.

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