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Lecture 5

PSYB10H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Facial Action Coding System, Paul Ekman, Positive Illusions


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB10H3
Professor
Elizabeth Page- Gould
Lecture
5

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Lecture 5- Group Processes
- Social Groups: Groups of people or objects with some form of interdependence between each other,
level of interaction, shared reality
Well defined social norms, tasks
vary in how cohesive they are and the effects of how strong or weak they are depend on cohesiveness
when you break social norms or deviate, you are punished or expelled from the social group
social norms guide our behavior,
you might belong to multiple groups whose norms conflicting from each other
social norms are behaviors or expectations from group members. Social roles is a subgroup assigned
to few people in social groups not all. These roles have a lot of power to see ourselves as individuals. Get
Violation from the social roles get punishment from other group members
-Philip Zumbardo- Stanford prison experiment
-Group cohesiveness- degree to which group members are close knit to each other
Social Facilitation & Social Loafing: How groups or presence of other people affect our performance.
The presence of social loafing and facilitation depend on 3 factors:
whether individually evaluated for performance
How aroused you are (heart rate etc.)
Complexity of the task itself
-Social facilitation: tendency of performance to be improved when you do well learned or dominant
behaviors in presence of other or inhibited when doing less practiced or difficult tasks in the presence of
others
-Social loafing: Tendency for people to perform worse on simple tasks and better on complex tasks if
they are in a group and being individually evaluated
-For example if people are singing/performing together- people tend to perform better because there is
no individual evaluation. No evaluation apprehension.
-When you have extreme evaluation, your body gets aroused and inhibits your performance
-When individually evaluatedevaluation apprehensionphysically arousedstress
Little stressperform good on simple task
-No evaluation apprehensionrelaxation/no stressworse performance on simple tasks
Relaxationperform better on complex tasks

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-Group Polarization- tendency to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclinations of
their members.
groups making riskier decisions/being more conservative than individual members would be
groups have both informational(turn to everybody else to test our own knowledge) and normative
social influence
GP is a minor effect and is more subtle
extreme form of GPGroup think
-Group Think- focusing more on maintaining a uniform perspective rather than on making the best
decision
Example: Challenger disaster
During the decision making (predict GroupThink)- AntecedentsHighly cohesive, isolation, directive
leader, high stress, non-structured decision-making procedures
Symptoms (What’s going on during GroupThink)illusion of invulnerability, group is morally correct,
out-group in stereotyped, self-censorship, pressure for conformity, illusion of unanimity(suppression of
thoughts), Mindguards (people who speak up..)
Consequencesincomplete survey of alternatives, failure to look at risk of favored alternatives, poor
information search, no contingency plans
Preventing GroupThink1)Assign someone the role of “devil’s advocate”-who question the
members, diffuses illusion of unanimity and creates structured situations. Everyone should know he is
an advocate. 2)Leader remains impartial(leader shouldn’t vote, or say which ideas they like). 3) seeking
people outside the group.4) creating subgroups having their own decisions and then bring decisions
together to the group. 5)Anonymous opinions from group members
-Jury decision making- differs if they make unanimous decisions. When there is unanimity, groupthink
gets amplified but lack of unanimity has negative outcomes too (in France many more guilty verdicts
than US because majority decides on the verdict).
6 person juries convict more often than 12 person juries- more people involved more likely to have a
dissenter in the group to stand up and speak out.
Cascade effect: judgement of initial speakers shape successors, who do not disclose what they know
or think
-Deindividuation: state in which a person loses the sense of him or herself as an individual. Occurs in
crowds, when physically anonymous, group chanting or stomping
-Destructive Cults - a social group of great devotion to a person/ideal thing that employs unethical
techniques of manipulation or control.
Characteristics: Charismatic leaders who are self-appointed, leader is focus of veneration, group
culture tends toward totalitarianism, 2 or more set of ethics (lower/higher hierarchy of rules and
norms), presents itself as innovative and exclusive. Main goals are recruitment and fundraising

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Example: Jim jones & the people’s temple. Order of the solar temple(massive suicides, unique &
fascinating)
Lecture 6- Emotion
-Emotion: A brief physiological and psychological response to an event that is felt subjectively and
prepares a person for action
6 core emotions by Paul Ekman: fear, anger, disgust, sadness, happiness, surprise. Predominance of
negative emotions (fear, anger, disgust, sadness).
-evolutionary reason: negative emotions make us fit to survive (disgust makes you run away from
snake), greater functionality to negative emotions.
Complex emotions: not one of the 6 basic emotions. They are blends of basic emotions.
Happiness+surprise=amusement. 2 classes of complex emotions: positive emotions & self-conscious
emotions
-Positive complex emotions: Gratitude (appreciation), contentment (satisfaction), amusement, desire
(going towards rewarding stimulus, salivation), love (contested)
-Self-conscious complex emotions: Pride (sense of satisfaction and happiness involving a self-reference),
shame (all about “me” more likely to feel angry at the victim and less likely to apologize and not likely to
admit/confess), guilt (other-directed, how you hurt someone else or regretful behavior, will try to repair
the behavior, promise not to do in future), embarrassment (self-concept, respond to it with laughter,
not always negative, blend of positive and negative)
-Complex Definition of Emotion: “An emotion is a universal, functional reaction to an external stimulus
event, temporarily integrating physiological, cognitive, phenomenological, and behavioural channels to
facilitate a fitness-enhancing, environment-shaping response to a current situation.”
emotions are short lived
-Real Emotions: between 500 ms - 4 s
-Fake emotions: 1- 10s
-if the stimulus is presented repeatedly, emotion can persist
-surprise is briefest, happiness, disgust and sadness is standard length, anger and fear last a little longer
Not Emotions:
-Moodgeneralized affected valence state, lasts and persists a while (few hours). Why it isn’t an
emotion? Because there is not clear stimulus for mood, persist over time, doesn’t motivate behaviors
(not always call for action), usually subjective (not observable physiologically)
-Sentiments (wishing best for someone etc.)not emotion
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