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Lecture

PSYB10H3 Lecture Notes - Frontal Lobe, Centrality, Hazel Rose Markus


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB10H3
Professor
Elizabeth Page- Gould

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PSYB10 LECTURE 2 THE SELF & SELF REGULATION
1
The Self: an individual consciousness of one’s own identity (includes feelings, observations and
thoughts)
-highest level of who you are, your qualities that are unique to you individual person
awareness of the self as an entity that is distinct from others and the environment is called self
awareness - tested with the Mark test (AKA Rouge test)
The Mark Test: an experimenter exposes subject to mirror and get used to it, and when the
subject isn’t paying attention they would put a mark nearby the cheek once this mark is on
your face and you see your reflection you reach for that mark
-once humans are 1.5 yrs and over they can all pass the mark test
-orangutans closely related to humans also pass the Mark Test, but other monkeys not so much
-baboons do not pass the mark test, so no clear distinction between the self and other
Self awareness step below theory of mind in the sense that before you understand that you
have different thoughts feelings and behaviour from others, you need to realize that you are
distinct from others at the basic level
Levels of the Self
-Minimal Self
-Objectified Self
-Symbolic Self (Narrative Self)
Minimal Self: conscious experience of the Self as distinct from the environment
-occurs through double stimulation
-touch your own body vs someone else produces different feelings... idea that you are not a part
of others or the environment
Objectified Self: cognitive capacity to serve as the object of one’s own (or others’) attention
-most captured by the Mark Test, cognitive ability to reflect on yourself and others, and realize
that this ability will determine social interactions
Symbolic Self: Ability to from an abstract mental representation of oneself through language
-so far think only humans have this
-can service the focus of our attention, but also have beliefs about ourselves language is
involved
Inherently Social how am I related to others’ thinking and how are they related to mine
The Self-Concept: your concept of who you are
-we protect the self concept because we care a lot involves the semantic network
-everything you know about yourself
-includes qualities, identities, roles etc.
Self Schema: cognitive representation of the self-concept
-how the self concept is organized in your head: cognitive representation of self concept
-the concepts/words in your semantic network that are associated with your sense of self
-guides processing of self-related information if you believe yourself to be a certain way then
you will be bias in the way you behave or think about those associations
Measuring the Self-Concept
-Twenty Statements Test (TST)
1. I am ... messy (personality descriptors)
2. I am ... studious (personality descriptors)
3. I am ... an athlete (social roles)
4. I am ... a best friend (social roles)
20. I am ... a parent (social roles)
-difference between cultures in the ratio of personality descriptors versus social

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PSYB10 LECTURE 2 THE SELF & SELF REGULATION
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-results of this test can be used as a way to be primed with yourself and trigger stimuli
Self-Complexity: the depth and complexity of your self-concept
-clump together attributes that are similar to each other to determine yourself complex
-operationalized as the number of distinct aspects used to define the self-concept
Measuring the Self-Schema: “Implicit Personality Test”
-personality traits appear on screen and quickly you press either me or not me to determine
whether they describe you measure how long it takes to respond
-measuring the distance from the positive to negative association
Self Schema Experiment: used 101 college students
-focusing on the independent trait and see how they associated themselves with it
-results for speed to classify the trait “Independent”
-results showed that the self dependant described subjects were the fastest to associate
themselves with an independent trait and the slowest to dissociate themselves from a non-
independent trait
Global Vs Contextualized Self
Global Self-Concept (I am...)
Contextualized Self-Concept (I am...when...)
-buffers negative feelings after failure
-if you just think of yourself in the global sense and fail then your global self fails as opposed to
failing in particular situations which are not universal
Working Self-Concept
think of it as working memory things that are most currently and readily available due to
events that have occurred and activation of different aspects due to present situations and
recently primed aspects
a subset of your self-concept
what goes in the working self-concept?
-recently primed aspects of self
-contextualized distinctive aspects
-central aspects of self: certain traits are more close to who we are and will always be there
Self-concept Centrality
some aspects of the self-concept are more personally important to you than others
central aspects are chronically accessible in the semantic network
Measuring Self-Concept Centrality
-Bull’s Eye Task, where by the middle of the circle represent who you are and put traits around
the ones that apply most often to the center
-quantifying the bull’s eye task, the distance from the origin of the circle to the location of the
word as a distance in mm
Interesting consequences:
-self evaluative maintenance
-self handicapping
-self verification
Self Evaluative Maintenance
in general we want to evaluate ourselves positively and so we want to protect our self concepts
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PSYB10 LECTURE 2 THE SELF & SELF REGULATION
3
if someone close to you outperforms you in a particular domain, then:
-you will be threatened if the domain is central to your self-concept
-you will be proud if the domain is not central to your self-concept
if domain is central to the self-concept
-distance self from relationship
-distance self from task domain
if the domain is not central to self-concept
-vicarious self-esteem boost
-magnitude of self-esteem boost proportional to closeness of relationship
-situation applies only to a close relationship and the more close you are the more you associate
them as being a part of you
Self Handicapping
you anticipate that you are going to fail on something that is central to who you are, and in such
cases people will put themselves in situations that will set them up for failure because you have
external reasons to blame failure on
strategy to buffer self from an anticipated failure or embarrassment by undermining one’s own
performance
Which feels worse? Studying well and being prepared for a test to get a C or Loafing around to
get a C?
Self Handicapping Experiment: used 100 college students
-given a survey (scores of the survey did not matter), rather the description of the rest mattered
-half the students were told that the test is diagnostic of career and life goal evaluations and half
were told that the test was just being validated
-measuring how music affected test performances, where the more facilitating music was a
lower score and disruptive music had higher score
-results showed average choice of tapes, and found that the diagnostic group had the higher
average and the control had the lower average in tape number
Self Verification
the need to seek confirmation of one’s self-concept
motivated by desire to be understood
holds true even if self-concept is negative
hols true for traits that are central to self-concept
Self Verification Experiment: background info: depression involves negative view of self, world
and future, and these negative views are chronically accessible
-participants given a “depression survey” and the highest and lowest coring groups were moved
to the next phase
-the groups were given personality tests, and told that they were being evaluated by graduate
students who would give them a preview assessment
-one of the previews was highly positive and the other highly negative, and the participants
were asked who they wanted to talk to
-results showed that non depressed people chose fewer negative reports compared to the
depressed people
if concept is central to who you are then you want other people to see you in that way, and you
are strongly motivated to be seen in that way self affiliation and wanting people to “get you
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