Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (620,000)
UTSC (30,000)
Psychology (8,000)
PSYB10H3 (500)
Lecture 3

PSYB10H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Extraversion And Introversion, Tachycardia, University Of Iowa Shooting

Course Code
Elizabeth Page- Gould

of 12
PSYB10 Sept. 23, 2013
Research Questions
Def.: A question you have about the world or how it works
Key features:
There will be clear concepts (constructs)
You are usually curious about a specific relationship between the concepts
How to operationalize your research question:
1. Come up with a way to measure every concept in your research question
2. Identify the correct statistical test for the relationship that you proposed
Social Psychological Research Question: Are people in romantic relationships happier
than people who are not?
Operationalize Concepts:
Relationship Status: Are you currently in a romantic relationship? [Yes / No]
Happiness: How happy are you? [1 = Not at All … 7 = Extremely]
Identify Statistical Test
The research question asks about average differences in happiness between two
groups of people … t-test!
Person Perception
What Goes Into Person Perception?
Verbal Behaviour: Content of our speech
PSYB10 Sept. 23, 2013
Nonverbal Behaviour: Things that are not said.
Emblems: Gestures that have well-understood meaning within a culture (they definitely
mean different things from culture to culture)
Effectively: nonverbal language
Can’t just be random signal. Has to have a word meaning.
Sign language is not considered an emblem. It is a language.
Power of Behavioural Input: “Thin Slices”: An approach within social psychology
focused on the attributional power of brief exposure to others. Looking at behaviour
from little bits of behaviour.
Can you categorize a person into an ambiguous group (a social group that a person
may or may not belong, that is not visible) from their face alone?
Population accuracy for ambiguous groups is 64%
Example (Interactions): Kraus & Keltner (2009)
People were filmed interacting then these videos were given to other participants. From
these videos, people had to guess various aspects of the people in participants’ lives.
Naive observers accurately detected parents’ income, mothers’ education, and
subjective SES
The observers didn’t feel like their ratings were accurate but it turns out that they
were pretty accurate in the end.
Relative to high SES participants, low SES participants spent less time:
Grooming, doodling, manipulating objects
Context matters
Provides additional input
Can completely change attribution
What you expect is what you get we have sets of expectations for other people and
we mostly seen people within our expectations, even if they are wrong.
PSYB10 Sept. 23, 2013
Def.: Explanation for an observed behaviour of a social object
Ease of Attribution
People wrote a human story about the tale of the triangles and circle bouncing around a
Because we make attributions so easily, there must be some reason for them.
How Automatic is Attribution? Very
Attributions = Pattern Matching
Attribution Theory
Primary Question: Do we attribute behaviour to something about the person (“internal”)
or something about the situation (“external”)?
Internal/External Attributions
Internal: Attributing a person’s behaviour to something intrinsic to that person
(your personality made you do it)
o Personality, disposition, attitude, or character
o This is consistent across situations and times
External: Attributing a person’s behaviour to something about the situation in
which the behaviour occurred
o Specifically not changing beliefs regarding person’s character or
Correspondence Bias: Tendency to infer that a person’s behaviour corresponds to their
disposition, personality, or attitude
Fundamental (?) Attribution Error
When perceiving others:
o Tendency to overestimate the influence of internal causes for behaviour
and underestimate external causes
When perceiving self:
o Much more likely to attribute own behaviour to external causes
Example: Jones & Harris (1967)