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Lecture

PSYB10H3 Lecture Notes - Realistic Conflict Theory

7 pages43 viewsFall 2010

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB10H3
Professor
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

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Lecture 19: Intergroup Processes
INGROUP
A social group to which you belong
x Everyone has multiple ingroups, and the ingroup one identifies with the most will be
based on the aspect of themselves they are currently thinking about
x 2QH¶VLQJURXSDQGRXWJURXSLVEDVHGSXUHO\RQWKHLURZQWKRXJKWVDERXWZKLFKJURXSV
they belong in or not.
OUTGROUP
A social group to which you do not belong
INTERGROUP PROCESSES
Situations, cognitions, beliefs, and feelings that arise when people from different groups interact
with or think about each other
SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY
A diffuse but interrelated set of social psychological theories about when and why individuals
identify with, and behave as a part of, social groups
x Assumptions
x Components
ASSUMPTIONS OF SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY
x Key Assumption:
o We all have a need for positive self regard (we want to think that we are good
people)
x How do we achieve this positive self-regard?
o Via our own achievements
o Via identification with the achievements of the social groups we belong to
For example, if you strongly identify with a religious group and you think
that your religious group is morally strong, then that actually gives you a
sense of positive self regard as well, it makes you feel that you are also
good because you are part of a group that is good.
SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY
x 4 Main Components of Social Identity Theory:
o Categorization
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o Identification
o Comparison
o Psychological Distinctiveness
CATEGORIZATION
People naturally group other social objects into groups
x Creates ingroup-outgroup distinction
GROUP CATEGORIZATION
x Why do we categorize people into groups?
o Old way of thinking:
Laziness
x people thought it was easier to categorize others instead of getting
to know them as individuals ± this is based on the assumption that
SHRSOHGLGQ¶WFDUHHQRXJKWRget to know everyone they meet
o New way of thinking:
Cognitive miser
x :HZLOOEHDEOHWRPRYHIDVWHUWKURXJKWKHZRUOGLIZHGRQ¶WKDYH
to individually process each human. When meeting somebody
new, we can categorize them and apply all the relevant stereotypes
from their group, and move on to the next person ± this is a very
efficient process, however it is error prone, we trade accuracy for
speed
x Cognitive miser perspective
o We have a limited cognitive resources that must be conserved
Similar to the studies where if you made people eat a plate or artichoke vs
a plate of cookies before an impossible puzzle, people will give up quicker
if they ate the artichoke because they have already used up their cognitive
resources by forcing themselves to eat the artichoke
o Engage in mental shortcuts (e.g., heuristics)
x Applied to group categorization:
o Categorize people on the basis of shared features
We pay attention to some features more than others. Age, sex and race are
the quickest ways in which we categorize people
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A group that maybe nobody else would recognize as a group, but in the
moment it allows you to quickly categorize these people ± it is very
context specific
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