Week 2: lecture #2: wednesday january 14 2015. The evolutionary process: variation: variation in design, differences taller, shorter, better eyesight, poor eyesight, cognitive ability. Some differences are heritable: selection: our designs impact our rates of reproduction. Evolution of adaptive characteristics because of the reproductive benefits consoled of those who have them. Peacocks" plumage: survival is not important, but survival is important for reproductive, longer you survive, more opportunities you have to reproduce. Adaptation ( evidence of special design : design properties selected and coordinated towards solving recurrent problems in the environment. Ear lobes does not contribute to survival, but because it is part of the ear, then it is a by-product. Random effects: design properties that are adaptively neutral, variation in ear lobe and size, ear lobe variability (big ear lobes, small ear lobes) adaptively neutral. Species-typical: universal, shared by virtually everyone in that species. Suspiciously functional: example of the giraffe, specialization and reliability non-arbitrary.