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Lecture 4

PSYB32H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Motor Skill, William Harris Ashmead, Perspective Control

Course Code
Mark Schmuckler

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Motor Development
I. Age norms for important motor milestones
II. The development of reaching
A. Underlying skills of visually-guided reaching
1. Perceptual abilities
2. Motor skill
3. Perceptual-motor coordination
B. Reaching in neonates
C. Normative sequence of reaching
D. Reaching for a moving object
E. Reaching with the hands and feet
F. Is visually-guided reaching a myth?
III.The development of locomotion
A. Perceptual information in locomotion
1. Perceiving the properties of surfaces
2. Control of balance
3. Visually-guided locomotion
B. A systems approach to development of walking
1. Component skills
2. Relation between skills

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Age Norms For Important Motor Milestones
Skill 50% 90%
Lifts head 90° 2.2 3.2
when lying on stomach
Rolls over 2.8 4.7
Sits (propped up) 2.9 4.2
Sits (no support) 5.5 7.8
Stands holding on 5.8 10.0
Walks holding on 9.2 12.7
Stands alone 11.5 13.9
Walks well 12.1 14.3
Walks up steps 17.0 22.0
Kicks ball forward 20.0 24.0
Achievement of motor development is not related to subsequent growth in
intellectual or emotional development. Motor development continues you
on into adulthood.
Average age in months

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Necessary Skills for Visually-Guided Reaching
1. Perceptual skills
Object recognition/perceive objects
Figure-ground separation - depth relationships
2. Motor skills
Arm and hand coordination
Fine-motor coordination and control
3. Visual-motor integration and coordination
Visual guidance of the hand in proper direction
Timing of the grasp
Perspective control when reaching for objects that are moving,
need to predict where it’s going to be and then grasp.
-the ability to reach for and graphs objects in our visual field = visually
guided reaching
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