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Lecture 15

Lecture Note For PSYB45, Lecture 15

by OC2

Course Code
Christian Campbell

of 2
Chapter 15
Respondent and Operant Conditioning Together
-Operant and respondent behaviour can also both occur in behavioral sequences
involving positive reinforcers. As you can see in the behavioral sequence, the sound of
the bell will become both a CS doe a respondent response and an SD for an operant
Respondent and operant components of emotions
- Emotions play an important role in our daily lives. To fully understand this,
we examine the role of respondent and operant conditioning in four areas
1) The reaction that one feels during the experience of an emotion (such as the
queasiness in the pit of one’s stomach just before a job interview.
2) The way the one learns to outwardly express or disguise en emotion ( uch as
clasping one’s hands rightly to hige nervousness)
3) How one becomes aware of and describes one’s emotions ( ex!I am
nervous as oppose to “I am angry”
4) Some causes of emotions
The Respondent Component: Our Feelings
- The respondent component of emotions involves primarily the three major
classes of respondent! reflexes of the digestive, circulatory and respiratory
system. These reflexes are controlled by the part of our nervous system
referred to as autonomic nervous system.
- Example! Albert and the white rat experiment with the steel box and
Operant Components: Our Actions, Descriptions, and Awareness
- When you experience an emotion-causing event, your body responses with an
immediate physiological reaction and accompanying facial expression. Then
what happens? If someone was angry, they my clench their fist and swear, or
another person might breathe heavily and walk away.
- Operant conditioning I also involved when we are taught to describe and be
aware of our emotions. Ex! why are you so angry?
Some Causes of Emotions
- Presentation and withdrawal of reinforcers and presentation and withdrawals
of aversive stimuli constitute four major causes of emotions:
1) Presentation of reinforcers produces the emotion happiness. Ex!
getting an A on a test
2) Withholding or withdrawal of reinforcers produces the emotion anger.
Ex! waiting 2 hours at a doctors appointment, nothing coming out of
bending machine, etc.
3) The presentation of an aversive stimuli produce the emotion anxiety.
Ex! strangers approaching you in a dark alley, car driving in your
direction, dog barking at you, etc.
4) Withdrawal of aversive stimuli produces the emotion relief. Ex!
finding out that you don’t have breast cancer after all, or that you
finally passed you G2 driving test!
! Each of these motions are present on a continuum from very mild to
very strong. You can be mildly to extremely happy.
- to summarize, our emotions have three important traits:
1) The autonomic reaction you feel during the experience of an emotion
(typically accompanied by visible signs, such as frowns or smiles)
which is influenced by respondent conditioning
2) The way you learn to express an emption overtly (such as shouting,
jumping, crying, etc) which is influenced by operant conditioning.
3) The way that you become aware of and describe your emotions, which
is also influenced by operant conditioning.
-Respondent component : Imaging (which is called conditioned seeing). Where you
imagine things in your mind.
-Operant Component : Our Self Talk- another way of thinking is known as self directed
verbal behaviour, or self-talk.
! we learn to talk out loud when we are kids because it helps us to perform better at
taskts. But when we get older, we tend to talk silented to ouselved largely because we
encounter punished when we think out loud, like in a classroom or when you see
someone you don’t like and you say out loud “ she is a bitch!”.
**Private Behaviour- Ex.--> I know that This guy I tink that is cute will be there so I
better dress nicer so he will notice me”…..