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Lecture 11

PSYB65H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Long-Term Memory, Wgta (Tv), Animal Cognition


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB65H3
Professor
Ted Petit
Lecture
11

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Lecture 11
FRONTAL LOBE DAMAGE (Prefrontal damage)
o HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
o They thought that the front part of the brain is for intellectual functioning came from Gall
Phrenology bumps on the head= origin of those emotions felt the skull
o Gall thought intelligence was at the frontal portion of the brain
o The first neuroscientist who tested this was Jacobson
Took some monkeys and removed the prefrontal area found that the monkeys had a
problem in delayed response task with WGTA Wisconsin General Testing
Apparatus
If these animals could see the solution to the problem and perform right away
they could solve the problem
If there was a delay they could not perform
The monkeys would see the banana, try to reach for it, look for something and
by the time they found something, they forgot why they needed the stick
Jacobson initially thought that this must be a loss in short term memory
capacities
However, he later found out if they could perform in the dark were given
tranquilizer they were able to perform the task probably distractibility or
emotional phenomenon
They had problems in Alternations
Monkeys could not solve these kind of problems of alternations
Once they learned the first set of responses, they could not change it lack that
plasticity
Jacobson went to a neurology conference and talked about this
One monkey in particular
Monkey did not react very well to get tested
She would more and more neurotic and uptight and throw temper tantrums
Eventually they couldn’t even make her go into the lab
After the frontal lobotomy became calm and relaxed
In audience was a neurosurgeon Moniz asked a question what would happen
if they did it on humans with psychological disorders
Moniz decided to try it on humans began the history of prefrontal lobotomy in
humans
Disconnect the prefrontal area from rest of the brain
The first report was written on 20 patients
o All survived 7 recovered and 7 improved
o Best results were with depressed patients
Major advancement in psychiatry
Moniz stopped performing lobotomies in 1944 because he was shot by one of
his lobotomy patient
Freeman and Watts brought the technique to North America
Operated on 3500 patients
In total 40000 lobotomies in US alone
Scar tissue epilepsy 18% developed
Declined in the 50’s and 60’s
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